Talk the Talk: The Slang of 67 American Subcultures (Second Edition)

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We picked up where Partridge left off, recording the slang and unconventional English of the English-speaking world since World War 2 with the same scholarship and joy in language that characterised Partridges work. We are not, and cannot be, Partridge: but we can strive to be proud heirs of Partridge and to speak with a voice that Partridge would recognise as an echo of his own. We have worked hard to continue the Partridge tradition, observing high standards of lexicography while producing an accessible work informed by, and infused with, the humour, mischief and energy that are endemic to slang.

This Concise version of the New Partridge contains every entry in New Partridge as well as several hundred new words that have come into the slang lexicon since The Concise is presented without the hundreds of thousands of citations in the New Partridge, creating an affordable alternative to our update of Partridge. Lastly, we improved dating infor- mation given on hundreds of headwords. Criteria for inclusion We use three criteria for including a term or phrase in this dictionary.

We include 1 slang and unconventional English, 2 used anywhere in the English-speaking world and 3 after Rather than focus too intently on a precise definition of slang or on whether a given entry is slang, jargon or colloquial English, we take full advantage of the wide net cast by Partridge when he chose to record slang and unconventional English instead of just slang, which is, after all, without any settled test of purity.

A term recorded here might be slang, slangy jargon, a colloquialism, an acronym, an initialism, a vulgarism or a catchphrase. In all instances, an entry imparts a message beyond the text and literal meaning. This approach is especially useful when dealing with world slang and unconventional English. A broader range has permitted inclusion of many Caribbean entries, for instance, which merit inclusion but might not meet a stringent pure-slang-only test.

Our only real deviation from Partridges inclusion criteria is a much diminished body of nicknames. The regiment nicknames that populate Partridges work no longer fulfil the language function that they did in the United Kingdom of Partridges day. If there was a question as to whether a potential entry fell within the target register, we erred on the side of inclusion. We generally chose to include poorly attested words, presenting the entry and our evidence of usage to the reader who is free to determine if a candidate passes probation.

Partridge limited his dictionary to Great Britain and her dominions. We elected the broader universe of the English-speaking world. Globalisation has affected many facets of life, not the least of which is our language. There are words that are uniquely Australian, American or British, but it is impossible to ignore or deny the extent of cross-pollination that exists between cultures as regards slang.

We were aided in our global gathering by indigenous contributors from Australia, Canada, the Caribbean, Ireland and New Zealand. We also include pidgin, Creolised English and borrowed foreign terms used by English-speakers in primarily English-language conversation. We include slang and unconventional English heard and used at any time after We chose the end of the war in as our starting point primarily because it marked the beginning of a series of profound cultural changes that produced the lexicon of modern and contemporary slang.

The cultural transformations since are mind-boggling. Television, computers, drugs, music, unpopular wars, youth movements, changing racial sensitivities and attitudes towards sex and sexuality are all substantial factors that have shaped culture and language. No term is excluded on the grounds that it might be considered offensive as a racial, ethnic, religious, sexual or any kind of slur. This dictionary contains many entries and citations that will, and should, offend. To exclude a term or citation because it is offensive is to deny the fact that it is used: we are not prescriptivists and this is simply not our job.

At the same time, we try to avoid definitions or editorial comment that might offend. We were tempted, but finally chose not to include an appendix of gestures, although many serve the same function as slang. Examples include the impudent middle finger, Ralph Cramdens Raccoon greeting and handshake, the elaborate mimes that signal jerk-off or dickhead, Johnny Carsons golf swing, Vic Reeves lascivious thigh rubbing and Arsenio Halls finger-tip-touch greeting.

Neither did we include an appendix of computer language such as emoticons or leet speak, although we have included throughout several of the more prominent examples of Internet and text messaging shorthand that have become known outside the small circle of initial users. We shied away from the lexicalised animal noises that often work their way into informal conversation, such as a cat noise when someone is behaving nastily.

We similarly did not include musical phrases that have become part of our spoken vocabulary, such as the four-note theme of The Twilight Zone which is used to imply an uncanny weirdness in any coincidence, or melodramatic hummed violin music that serves as vocal commentary on any piteous tale. Using The Concise New Partridge We hope that our presentation is self-evident and that it requires little explanation. We use only a few abbreviations and none of the stylistic conceits near and dear to the hearts of lexicographers.

Headwords We use indigenous spelling for headwords. This is especially relevant in the case of the UK arse and US ass. For Yiddish words, we use Leo Rostens spelling, which favours sh- over sch-. An initialism is shown in upper case without full stops for example, BLT , except that acronyms pronounced like individual lexical items are lower case for example, snafu.

Including every variant spelling of a headword seemed neither practical nor helpful to the reader. For the spelling of headwords, we chose the form found in standard dictionaries or the most common forms, ignoring uncommon variants as well as common hyphenation variants of compounds and words ending in ie or y. For this reason, citations may show variant spellings not found in the headword.

Placement of phrases As a general rule, phrases are placed under their first sig- nificant word. However, some invariant phrases are listed as headwords; for example, a stock greeting, stock reply or catchphrase. Terms that involve a single concept are grouped together as phrases under the common headword; for example, burn rubber, lay rubber and peel rubber are all listed as phrases under the headword rubber.

Definition In dealing with slang from all seven continents, we encountered more than a few culture-specific terms. For such terms, we identify the domain or geographic location of the terms usage. We use conventional English in the definitions, turning to slang only when it is both substantially more economical than the use of convention- al English and is readily understood by the average reader.

Gloss The voice and tone of The New Partridge Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English is most obvious in the gloss: the brief explanations that Partridge used for edi- torial comment or further elucidation. Partridge warned against using the gloss to show what clever and learned fellows we are a warning that we heed to the very limited extent it could apply to us.

We chose to discontinue Partridges classification by register. Country of origin As is the case with dating, further research will undoubtedly produce a shift in the country of origin for a number of entries. We resolutely avoided guesswork and informed opinion. Dating Even Beale, who as editor of the 8th edition was the direct inheritor of Partridges trust, noted that Partridges dating must be treated with caution. We recognise that the accurate dating of slang is far more difficult than dating conventional language. Virtually every word in our lexicon is spoken before it is written, and this is especially true of unconventional terms.

The recent proliferation of elec- tronic databases and powerful search engines will undoubtedly permit the antedating of many of the entries. Individualised dating research, such as Allen Walkers hunt for the origin of OK or Barry Popiks exhaustive work on terms such as hot dog, produces dramatic antedatings: we could not undertake this level of detailed research for every entry.

Conclusion In the preface to his Dictionary of the English Language, Samuel Johnson noted that A large work is difficult because it is large, and that Every writer of a long work commits errors. In addition to improvements in our dating of terms and identification of the country of origin, it is inevitable that some of our definitions are Preface x incorrect or misleading, especially where the sense is subtle and fleeting, defying paraphrasing, or where kindred senses are interwoven. It is also inevitable that some quotations are included in a mistaken sense. For these errors, we apologise in advance.

We carry the flame for words that are usually judged only by the ill-regarded company they keep. Just as Partridge did for the sixteenth century beggars and rakes, for whores of the eighteenth century, and for the armed services of the two world wars, we try to do for the slang users of the last 60 years. We embrace the language of beats, hipsters, Teddy Boys, mods and rockers, hippies, pimps, druggies, whores, punks, skinheads, ravers, surfers, Valley Girls, dudes, pill-popping truck drivers, hackers, rappers and more.

We have tried to do what Partridge saw as necessary, which was simply to keep up to date. With good humour and a saintly tolerance for our so-called wit and attempts to corrupt, she herded this project through from a glimmer in the eye to print on the page. We bow to and thank the following who helped along the way: Mary Ann Kernan, who was charged with putting this project together in and ; John Williams, who must be credited for all that is right about our lexicography and excused for anything that is not; Robert Hay and Mike Tarry of Alden for their unending work on the database and cheerful handling of every problem we could throw at them; Claire LEnfant; James Folan for rescuing us in the content edit phase; Louise Hake for her cheerful determination in the editing and production phases; our fine copy editors Sandra Anderson, Howard Sargeant and Laura Wedgeworth; and Aine Duffy for her enthusiastically scurrilous vision of the whole project as it developed.

Finally, we thank Oxford University Press for providing us with access to the Oxford English Dictionary Online, a brilliant online presentation of the Oxford English Dictionary, one of the leading sources for dating. Tom Dalzell and Terry Victor This dictionary would never have seen the light of day without the time and support given to me by my family Cathy most notably, also Jake, Julia, Rosalie and Charlotte. I thank and owe you big-time, major league and humongously.

Who knew it would take so much? In their own ways, and from a distance, my parents guided. Audrey, Emily and Reggae started the project with me but did not stay for the end. I also thank: my slang mentors Paul Dickson and Madeline Kripke and better mentors you could not hope for ; Archie Green, who saved Peter Tamonys work for posterity and encouraged me throughout this project; Jesse Sheidlower, Jonathon Green and Susan Ford, slang lexicographers, friends and comrades in words; Dr Lisa Winer for her voluminous and fine work on the slang of Trinidad and Tobago; Jan Tent for his excellent collection of Fijian slang; Dr Jerry Zientara, the learned and helpful librarian at the Institute for Advanced Study of Human Sexuality in San Francisco, which kindly opened its incomparable library to me; Tom Miller, Bill Stolz, John Konzal and Patricia Walker, archivists at the Western Historical Manuscript Collection, University of Missouri at Columbia, for their help and insights during my work with the Peter Tamony archives; the Hon.

Our Australian contributor, James Lambert, was given recourse to the various databases of the Macquarie Library Pty Ltd, who publish synchronic dictionaries for the Australian and Asian markets, and for these vast resources we are grateful. Lastly, I acknowledge Terry Victor. The demands of this project have only strengthened our friendship. Tom Dalzell My wife, Liz, deserves a dictionary entry of her own as a definition of tolerance, patience and encouragement way beyond conventional expectations. In the wider world, my sister and family added to both my library and vocabulary; and my other family, now in Spain, even went so far as to put a christening on hold until a deadline had been met, as well as allowing me access to the playground language of our time.

I must also thank Gerri Smith for her tolerant understanding that I could not be in two places at once. Serendipity brought me to Tom Dalzell and through him I have had the advantage and benefit of all of the influences and providers of expertise that he names above, especially Jonathon Green. In addition to those named I am grateful for the knowledgeable encouragement of Michael Quinion and David Crystal; and, in matters polari, Paul Baker.

For particular contributions I would like to thank: Flight Lieutenant Andrew Resoli; Lisa and Tim Hale; David Morrison; some of the inmates at HMP High Down in the summer of ; Antonio Lillo for his work on rhyming slang; various magazine editors and journalists who addressed so many of my queries of modern usage; and, for a splendid collection of cocaine-related slang, a certain group of musicians whose management would prefer that they remain anonymous. I also enjoyed the advan- tage of the correspondence that the Partridge and Beale 8th edition still attracts: I am grateful to all who wrote in, and I look forward to seeing more contributions at www.

Above all, I must make mention of two people: Eric Partridge, who is my hero, and Tom Dalzell, who is my friend. He did not, by any means, restrict his interest to matters slang and unconventional; however, it is his work in this area that had, and continues to have, the greatest impact, and on which his reputation is most celebrated. He wrote more than forty books in his lifetime, considering such diverse topics as abbreviations, American tramp and underworld slang, British and American English since , comic alphabets, English and American Christian names, Shakespeares bawdy, usage and abusage, and he contributed to many, many more.

It is so substantial a body of work that any list short of a full bib- liography will inevitably do his great achievement a disservice. He was a philologist, etymologist, lexicographer, essayist and dictionary-maker; he is a legend and an inspi- ration. The flavour, and wisdom, of Partridges work is gathered in the quotations that follow, loosely grouped by subject, and presented under sub-headings that make new use of a selection of his book and article titles.

Slang Today and Yesterday From about , slang has been the accepted term for illegitimate colloquial speech: but since then, especially among the lower classes, lingo has been a synonym, and so also, chiefly among the cultured and the pretentious, has argot. Now argot, being merely the French for slang, has no business to be used thus it can rightly be applied only to French slang of French cant: and lingo properly means a simplified language that, like Beach-la-Mar and Pidgin-English, represents a distortion of say English by coloured peoples speaking English indeed but adapting it to their own phonetics and grammar.

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Jargon originally as in Chaucer, used of the warbling of birds has long been employed loosely and synonymously for slang, but it should be reserved for the technicalities of science, the pro- fessions and the trades: though, for such technical- ities, shop is an equally good word. It originates, nearly always, in speech. But the simplest things are the hardest to define, certainly the hardest to discuss, for it is usually at first sight only that their simplicity is what strikes one the most forcibly.

And slang, after all, is a peculiar kind of vagabond language, always hanging on the outskirts of legitimate speech, but continually straying or forcing its way into the most respectable company. As it originates, so it flourishes best, in colloquial speech. Every group or association, from a pair of lovers to a secret society however large, feels, at some time or other, the need to defend itself against outsiders, and therefore creates a slang designed to conceal its thoughts: and the greater the need for secrecy, the more extensive and complete is the slang[. Such special words and phrases become slang only when they are used outside their vocational group and then only if they change their meaning or are applied in other ways [] But, whatever the source, personality and ones surroundings social or occupational are the two co-efficients, the two chief factors, the determining causes of the nature of slang, as they are of language in general and of style.

Borrowings, indeed, have a way of seeming slangy or of being welcomed by slang before standard speech takes them into its sanctum. American slang is apt to be more brutal than English[.

Talk the Talk: The Slang of 67 American Subcultures

In the standard speech and still more in slang we note that the motive behind figurative expressions and all neologisms is the desire to escape from the old accepted phrase: the desire for novelty operates more freely, audaciously, and rapidly in slang that is the only difference. In short to be in the fashion or to prove that someone else isnt. Except in formal and dignified writing and in professional speaking, a vivid and extensive slang is perhaps preferable to a jejune and meagre vocabulary of standard English; on the other hand, it will hardly be denied that, whether in writing or speech, a sound though restricted vocabulary of standard English is preferable to an equally small vocabulary of slang, however vivid may be that slang.

Some dictionaries are so well written that one just goes on and on. To write such a dictionary has always been my ambition. But ever since my taste acquired a standard, I have been able to extract some profit from even the most trashy book. Purists have risen in their wrath and conservatives in their dignity to defend the Bastille of linguistic purity against the revolutionary rabble. The very vehemence of the attack and the very sturdinessof the defence have ensured that only the fittest survive to gain entrance to the citadel, there establish themselves, and then become conservatives and purists in their turn.

As though there werent too many narcotics already 17 Words are very important things; at the lowest estimate, they are indispensable counters of communication. An abbreviation of ACID '. Shorthand for ass-to-mouth '' A3 anytime, anyplace, anywhere. An abbreviation used in text messaging AAA noun an amphetamine tablet. In the US, the AAA is the national automobile club, which, like an amphetamine tablet, helps you get from one place to another '' A and A noun in the military, a leave for rest and recreation. A jocular abbreviation of ass and alcohol ' A and B noun assault and battery ' aap; arp noun a marijuana cigarette.

From Afrikaans for monkey ' aardvark noun an F combat aircraft or any aircraft that is awkward-looking or difficult to fly. Vietnam war usage ' ab noun an abscess, especially as a result of injecting drugs ' AB noun 1 the Aryan Brotherhood, a white prison gang in the US ''.


An abbreviation of Annie Brown ' '' ABA noun a travellers cheque ' abb adjective abnormal '' abba-dabba noun chatter, gossip. Undoubtedly originated with the song The Aba-Daba Honeymoon, written in and re-released with great success by Larry Clinton and His Orchestra in March , in which abba-dabba is the chatter of monkeys ' abba-dabba adjective dark-skinned, especially Arabic ' abbed adjective having well-defined abdominal muscles abbey noun a swindler who impersonates a priest '. From the name of the manufacturer ' Abby Singer noun in television and film making, the next-to-last shot of the day.

Singer was active in US television from the early s until the late s; his name became an eponym when he was an Assistant Director in the s '' ABC noun 1 an American-born Chinese '. Childish usage ABC ad noun a newspaper advertisement listing shows in alphabetical order ' ABC class noun the entry grade in a primary school ABCing you used as a farewell. Intended as a clever variant of Ill be seeing you abdabs; habdabs; screaming abdabs noun a condition of anxiety, uneasiness, nervousness; also, but rarely, or a state of enraged frustration.

Always following the, usually now phrased to give someone the screaming abdabs ' abdicate verb to vacate a public toilet upon orders of a homosexual- rousting attendant. World War 1 coinage '. Gulf war usage '' Abe noun 1 a five-dollar note. Also variant Abie. The note bears an engraving of President Lincoln ' Aber nickname Aberdare, Abergavenny, Aberystwyth or any town so constructed. From Welsh for where two waters meet ' abercrombie noun 1 a person devoted to prep-school fashions and style.

Originally the slang of Australian teenagers. From early s in the UK it has been the widely fam- iliar short-form of popular television situation comedy , ' Abigail noun a staid, traditional, middle-aged homosexual man ' able adjective strong, capable, courageous. In general speech, this word is usually followed by to do [something], but the Canadian use tends to follow the otherwise obsolete pattern of letting it stand alone or with an intensifier '.

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Based on the letters A and D in phonetic alphabet. The Skyraider was manufactured between and ; it saw service in Korea and Vietnam ' able Grable noun a sexually attractive girl ' abo noun an Australian Aboriginal. An abbreviation of aborigine blended with the -o suffix.

Now a strongly taboo word, formerly in frequent use by white people, and viewed by them as less marked than other terms such as boong or coon. It was even used in names for products, businesses, etc ' abo adjective Australian Aboriginal; of, or pertaining to, Australian Aboriginals ' aboard adverb present, part of an enterprise '. The addition of narcotic enhancements to a BOMB a marijuana cigarette is signified by the A '' A-bombed adjective under the influence of amphetamines ' A-bone noun a Model A Ford car, first built in ' aboot preposition used as a humorous attempt to duplicate a Canadian saying about '' abort verb to defecate after being the passive partner in anal sex ' abortion noun a misfortune; an ugly person or thing ' about-face noun a degree turn executed while driving fast ' about it; bout it adjective in favour of something about right adjective correct, adequate above board adjective entirely honest.

From card playing above par adjective 1 in excellent health or spirits. Originates from describing stocks and shares as above face value '. By extension from the previous sense ' abracadabra, please and thank you used as a humorous embellishment of please. A signature line from the childrens television show CBS, Repeated with referential humour ' Abraham Lincoln; Abie Lincoln adjective disgusting, contemptible. A combination with the archetypal Jewish name Abraham ' abs noun the abdominal muscles ' absobloodylutely adverb absolutely, utterly.

First recorded as absoballylutely ' absofuckinglutely adverb absolutely ' absolutely! Positively, Mr Shean. From the Vaudeville team of Gallagher and Shean ' absotively; absitively adverb certainly. An initialism, a philosophy, a tattoo '' academy noun a jail or prison '' Academy Award noun recognition of excelling in a field ' Academy Award adjective 1 excellent '. A popular, well-known strain of cannabis. The song Acapulco Gold by the Rainy Daze was released in and had just begun its climb on the pop charts when programme directors figured out what it was about and pulled it off play lists ' acca; acker noun an academic whose work serves the marketplace rather than the intellect; hence a particularly sterile piece of academic writing.

Citizens band radio slang '. From the popular belief that card cheats hide cards up their sleeves '. Douche is an intentional corruption of deuce; a come-out roll of three loses ''' ace high; aces high adjective the very best. From poker ' ace in verb 1 to manipulate someone or something into a situation '. A riding style popularised by legendary jockey Eddie Acaro ' above board acey-deucey 2 acey-deucy noun in craps, a roll of a one and a two ' acey-deucy adjective bisexual. In the film, the rich Lebowski sponsors a programme named the Little Lebowski Urban Achievers Achnard noun a taxi driver.

New York police slang, corrupting Ahmed as an allusion to the preponderance of immigrants among New Yorks taxi-driving workforce '' acid noun 1 LSD '. Especially in the phrase come the old acid '. From acid test '. Folk etymology claims the music to be inspired by the altered states of conciousness induced by ACID the hallucinogenic drug LSD ; certainly this was a commercial style of music being marketed to the mass audience when high-profile musicians were experimenting with LSD ' acid test noun an event organised to maximise the hallucinatory experiences of LSD. Three es seem to be a constant in the various spellings that attempt to capture the fervour generated by early acid house culture ''' ack noun 1 a pimple '.

Clerical usage, originally Civil Service '. An initialism, using the phonetic alphabet that was current until Usage survived the new alphabet rather than being amended to able able ' ack-ack verb to shoot someone or something ' ackamarackus; ackamaracka noun fanciful speech intended to deceive ' ack emma noun the morning.

Military origins, from the phonetic alphabet: ack A current , emma M ' acker; akka; ackers noun money in any form. Rhyming slang, based on West Country jazz musician Acker Bilk b. In World War 2 military use; signalese for 'OL, the official abbreviation ' acme wringer noun the finger. Glasgow rhyming slang ' acne noun a rough road-surface ' acorn noun in a casino, a generous tipper ' acorns noun the testicles ' acorn shell noun a condom '' acquire verb to steal something.

In the twin cities of Halifax and Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, the Nova Scotia Hospital, the institution for the mentally unstable, is in the latter ''' across the board noun in horse racing, a bet that a horse will win, place finish second , or show finish third ' across the ditch noun Australia ' '' across the pavement adverb of criminal activity in a street situ- ation ' act noun the disguise and staged personality assumed by an expert card counter playing blackjack in a casino in the hope of avoiding detection and ejection ''.

If not coined by, popularised as part of the catchphrase everybody wants to get into the act by comedian Jimmy Durante on the radio in the s '. A variation of pull yourself together '. A humorous extension of act your age ' act-ass noun a show-off; a braggart ' acting Jack noun 1 a lance sergeant. Korean war usage '.

Often in the greetings wheres the action? For example, Im ready for some Chinese food action ' action beaver noun a film featuring full nudity and sexual activity short of intercourse ' action faction noun a subset of the political left that advocated forceful, confrontational tactics ' action player noun a gambler who bets heavily, frequently and flamboyantly action room noun 1 a poolhall where betting is common '.

Criminal usage '. Based on the stereotype of the actor as starving artist, timing his reach for his wallet to produce a demur from someone else at the table who has already reached for their wallet to pay ''' actual noun in the Vietnam war, a unit commander '' actuary noun in an illegal betting operation, an oddsmaker ' AD noun a drug addict. Either a straightforward abbreviation of addict or, as has been seriously suggested, an initialism of drug addict reversed to avoid confusion with a District Attorney ' adafookman!

A phonetic slovening of have I fuck, man! A homophonic evolution of eighter ' Ad Alley nickname the advertising industry, especially that located in New York and commonly known in the US as Madison Avenue after the New York street where many advertising agencies had their offices ' Adam noun 1 MDMA, the recreational drug best known as ecstasy. An anagram '. From Adam as the biblical first man '. Rhyming slang. Franklyn suggests it ante-dates ; , finds the earliest citation at Restaurant slang '' Adam Ants noun pants.

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Without a conventional fig leaf ' Adams off-ox noun a complete stranger. Used in the expression he wouldnt know me from Adams off-ox ' adbuster noun in anticorporate activism, the non-specific description for those involved in cultural subversion '' adbusting noun in anticorporate activism, the act of subverting brand advertising, usually by parody or mockery addick noun an addict.

A misspelling that reflects pronunciation '' addict noun a victim of a confidence swindle who repeatedly invests in the crooked enterprise, hoping that his investment will pay off '. The English version of Americanised pronunciation, adopting the US slang sense of attitude '' addy noun an address A-deck noun a prison cell used for solitary confinement ' adger verb in computing, to make an avoidable mistake '' adidas noun a prison training instructor.

From the similarity between the stripes on an instructors uniform and the logo- styling on Adidas sports equipment '' adios amoebas used as a humorous farewell. The amoebas is an intentional butchering of ' adios motherfucker used as a farewell. Jocular or defiant; sometimes abbreviated to AMF ' Adirondack steak; Adirondack goat noun game, especially venison, killed out of season ' adjectival adjective used as a euphemistic substitute for any intensifying adjective that may be considered unsuitable ' adjuster noun a hammer '' adjust the stick! Originally Royal Australian Navy usage ' admish noun the admission price of a performance ' a-double-scribble noun used as a euphemism for ass in any of its senses '' Adrian Quist adjective drunk.

Rhyming slang for PISSED; formed on the name of the Australian tennis player, ' adrift adjective 1 absent without leave; missing. Originally nautical usage. Gay use, on the premise that it pays to advertise '. Derogatory ' A-factor noun the Antarctic factor, which explains any and all unexpected and added difficulties encountered ' AFAIC used as shorthand in Internet discussion groups and text messages to mean s ar s m oncerned AFF noun an attraction to South Asian females.

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An abbreviation of Asian female fetish '' affirmative yes. Used with irony, mocking a military response ' affy bud noun a type of marijuana that originates in Afghanistan. Formerly generally regarded with suspicion and contempt by white Australians, which accounts for the fossilisation of the term in various derogatory phrases; the occupation has long since disappeared ' actors reach Afghan 4 Afghani noun hashish oil from Afghanistan.

Although Afghanistan is best known for its heroin, hashish is a second important export '' Afghani black; Afghani pollen noun varieties of hashish from Afghanistan AFK used as shorthand in Internet discussion groups and text mess- ages to mean way rom eyboard Afkansastan noun Afghan marijuana grown in Kansas afloat adjective drunk ' AFO nickname the Arellano-Felix Organization, a criminal enterprise that functioned as a transportation subcontractor for the heroin trade into the US '' afoot or ahossback adjective unsure of the direction you are going to take ' A for effort noun praise for the work involved, if not for the result of the work.

From a trend in US schools to grade children both on the basis of achievement and on the basis of effort expended. Faint praise as often as not ' Africa hot adjective extremely hot '' African noun 1 a manufactured cigarette not hand-rolled ''. Based on the stereotypical association between rural black people and a love of watermelon ' African guff-guff noun a non-existent disease suffered by soldiers ' African plum noun a watermelon ' African queen noun a white homosexual man who finds black men attractive.

Punning on the Bogart film '' African salad noun khat, a natural stimulant grown in Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia African toothache noun any sexually transmitted infection ' African Woodbine noun a marijuana cigarette. Woodbine was a well-known brand of cheaper cigarette ' Afro noun a bushy, frizzy hairstyle embraced by black people as a gesture of resistance in the s ' afromobile noun a wicker pedicab '' Afro pick noun a gap-toothed comb used for an Afro hairstyle ' afterbirth noun rhubarb ' afterburner noun a linear amplifier for a citizens band radio ' afterclaps noun consequences '' after-hours adjective open after bars and nightclubs close at 2am ' afterlater adverb later '' after-nine noun a black male homosexual who pretends to be het- erosexual during working hours afternoon noun the buttocks, especially large female buttocks '' afternoon farmer noun a lazy and unsuccessful farmer ' afters noun 1 the dessert course of a meal.

Originally military usage ''. Scamto youth street slang South African townships afterthought noun an unplanned pregnancy; the child of an unplanned pregnancy ' after you, Claude no, after you, Cecil used to depict a lack of aggression or unnecessary good manners.

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Contemporary usage has been widely applied to sports such as cricket, hockey, football and motor-racing, and also to first-past-the-post electoral systems '' after you with the trough! A unsubtle implication that the belcher is a pig who has eaten too much. Mainly northern England ' ag adjective angry. An abbreviation of aggravated AG adjective ll ood '' ag used as an all-purpose intensifier. Pronounced like the German. Can precede any sentence for various effects, such as the more neutral, Ag, I dont know.

Used by some people as a stand- alone expletive ag; agg noun trouble; problems; a nuisance. Based on Aga stoves which are recognised as an appropriate social symbol or aspiration '' agate noun 1 a marble in the slang sense of sanity '. The suffix got a second wind with the US television series , , ' ageable adjective very old age before beauty used as a mock courtesy when allowing someone to precede you ' age card noun proof of legal age ' agent noun 1 the operator of a rigged carnival game '.

A reference to the name of the female lead in the television series, punning on her name and SKULL oral sex agfay noun a homosexual man. Pig Latin for FAG ' agged adjective angry, aggravated '' aggie noun 1 an aggressive, domineering male. From the conven- tional aggressive '. Co- founded in by Agnes Weston to try and save sailors from booze and brothels and still trying.

Grateful sailors used to call Weston-Super-Mare in the southwest of England Aggie-on-horseback ' aggravation noun of police or criminals an act of harrassment. Metropolitan Police slang ' 5 Afghani aggravation aggressive adjective used as a coded euphemism for dominant in sadomasochistic sex ' aggro noun 1 trouble, strife; problems; a nuisance.

Abbreviated from aggravation ''. Teen slang ' agitprop noun agitation and propaganda as an unfocused political tactic; a fashionable genre of theatre arts with a usually left-wing political agenda. Adopted from the name given to a department of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party respon- sible for agitation and propaganda on behalf of communist ideals; a conflation of , and ' aglish adjective nauseated; sick to ones stomach. When is passive voice useful? Clark uses these tools as he explains them. Along with pointing out ways to optimize writing, Clark trots out metaphors that show effective ways to accomplish key writing tasks, like keeping the reader happy with gold coins left here and there in your piece and explaining difficult concepts by climbing up and down the Ladder of Abstraction.

Cultures of Popular Music. Bennett, Andy and Keith Kahn-Harris Berlinger, Joe and Bruce Sinofsky Documentary film. Berwick, Hilary n. Borden, Ian Skateboarding, Space and the City: Architecture and the Body. Oxford, UK: Berg. Bourdieu, Pierre Bovone, Laura The Point of View of Young People. Brake, Michael London: Routledge. Buechele, Tom Canham, Matt April 2nd, Final edition, p. Cherry, Elizabeth Clarke, John a. Clarke, John b. Cloward, Richard and Lloyd Ohlin Cohen, Albert Delinquent Boys: The Culture of the Gang.

Cohen, Phil Cohen, Stanley []. Folk Devils and Moral Panics 3rd edn. Copes, Heith and J. Patrick Williams Cressey, Paul G. The Taxi-Dance Hall. Decker, Jeffrey Louis Epstein, Jonathan Youth Culture: Identity in a Postmodern World. Malden, MA: Blackwell. Faris, Robert E. Chicago Sociology — San Francisco, CA: Chandler. Ferrell, Jeff Fine, Gary Alan Fine, Gary Alan and Sherryl Kleinman Fischer, Claude S. Fonarow, Wendy Fox, Kathryn Joan Gaines, Donna Garrison, Ednie Kaeh Gelder, Ken Gelder, Ken ed.

The Subcultures Reader, 2nd Ed. Subculture: Cultural Histories and Social Practice. Goldenberg, Suzanne International Pages, p. Gramsci, Antonio Grossberg, Larry Paradise: A Rock Formation. New York, NY: Routledge. Haenfler, Ross Dick Subculture: The Meaning of Style. London: Methuen. Hetherington, Kevin Hodkinson, Paul Goth: Identity, Style and Subculture. Holt, Thomas J. Irwin, John Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Jasper, Agnes Jenkins, Henry Jenkins, Richard Social Identity. Johnson, Bruce D. Sifaneck and Eloise Dunlap Kahn-Harris, Keith Extreme Metal: Music and Culture on the Edge.

Oxford, UK: Berg Publishers. Kidder, Jeffrey Krokovay, Zsolt Leblanc, Lauraine Leonard, Marion Lewin, Philip G.

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Lincoln, Sian Lowney, Kathleen S. Lucas, Tim Macdonald, Nancy New York: Palgrave. Martin, Greg Mayhew, Henry [—2]. McLeod, Kembrew McRobbie, Angela and Jenny Garber Merton, Robert Miller, Laura Moore, Jack B. Moore, Ryan Subcultural Capital and the Commercialization of a Music Scene.

Muggleton, David Park, Robert E. Park, Ernest W. Burgess and Roderick D. Paterline, Brent Peralta, Stacy Dogtown and Z-Boys. Agi Orsi Productions. Peterson, Richard A. Raby, Rebecca Roberts, Keith A. Roman, Leslie G. Roman and Linda K. London: Falmer Press. Rose, Tricia Rosenbaum, Jill Leslie and Lorraine Prinsky Ruddick, Susan Sardiello, Robert