The Berry Bible: With 175 Recipes Using Cultivated and Wild, Fresh and Frozen Berries

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The best of these were planted on her property for Dr. Colvilles breeding program. By the s the industry was born when four cultivars, bred for flavor, size, light blue color, and hardiness, were released from crossbreeding and propagation of the wild plants. Colville spent 35 years crossbreeding blueberries from this wild selection. For more history, see Lowbush Blueberry. North America is the worlds leading producer of cultivated highbush blueberries.

They are grown in more than 30 states and in the fertile Fraser Valley of British Columbia. Half of the crop is sold fresh, and production is rapidly on the increase due to consumer demand both here and abroad. Chile, New Zealand, Australia, and many European countries are cultivating blueberries as well.

One of the more recent major successes in breeding has been the crossbreeding of native Florida species into the commercial blueberries to develop low chill or southern highbush blueberries that can be grown in areas with mild winters. This has allowed the expansion of the blueberry industry into Mexico, California, and southern Florida.

Now there are so many blueberry cultivars they can be divided into the time of the season they ripenearly, midseason, and late early in Florida means March; in North Carolina, April; in Arkansas, May; etc. In addition to the varying ripening times, blueberry cultivars differ in the size of the fruit, the color of their skin, their aroma, and flavor. Cultivars of the rabbiteye V. Georgia is the leading rabbiteye producer. Other notable production comes from North Carolina and a small amount from Florida.

More recently, rabbiteyes have been planted in Oregon, where they grow. Pick them in the morning when the berries are firm and cool. Refrigerate the berries as soon as possible after picking. HOW TO BUY Fresh blueberries should be firm and full with smooth skin with a silvery white bloom; there should be no traces of juice or mold on the berries or the container. Wash just before using and serve them at room temperature for their fullest flavor. Pick over and discard immature and overripe berries. Pour into self-sealing plastic freezer bags and freeze for up to one year.

Think of them as the chicken of the berry world. They are good mixed with other fruits and nuts,. Blueberries can be used fresh or frozen with the exception of pancakes, when they should be thawed first. The thin batter cooks so quickly they might not have time to thaw. To keep the area surrounding the berries from turning blue, coat them with flour before adding them to dough or batter before baking. I take them on river float trips in a plastic container in an ice chest not touching the ice for cereal and snacking, and Im always amazed at how well they hold up.

Vaccinium angustifolium, and to a lesser extent V. The bilberry V. The wild lowbush blueberry may hybridize with the wild highbush blueberry V. Half-high blueberry cultivars, such as Northblue, Northcountry, and Polaris, are grown for commercial production in very cold climates like Minnesota and are commonly grown as ornamental shrubs. These diminutive plants are six to 18 inches tall and often grow in dense colonies with several species growing together.

The most important commercial species in the United States, the low sweet blueberry V. Giant granite boulders are a striking contrast to the knee-high mounds of colorful blueberry bushes that grow in masses around them, like a perfectly landscaped garden. The Canadian distribution of the lowbush wild blueberry is from eastern British Columbia to Labrador for V.

The berries flourished in the. The berries were eaten fresh, dried, and smoked, often mixed with deer meat and fat to make pemmican, small high-protein cakes eaten during travel. The roots were brewed into a tea and used as a muscle relaxant during childbirth, and berry juice was given as a cough suppressant. Wild blueberries were first canned in Cherryfield, Maine, during the Civil War for the Yankee troops. It was the birth of the industry, which continued to grow after the war with soldiers who had developed a taste for these berries returning home. Farmers intensely manage these ancient barrens, where berries thrive in colonies or clones spreading out in a short, dense mat.

Today the land is mowed or burned every other year to prune the plants, a technique colonists learned from the Indians hundreds of years ago. It removes competing plants, pushes back the encroaching forest, and increases plant growth by returning nutrients to the soil. Maine supplies half of the worlds crop of wild blueberries and 99 percent of the production in the U. S on 60, acres. New Hampshire has approximately 1, acres, and Massachusetts has another acres.

Most of the berries are frozen with only 8 percent of them canned and 1 percent sold fresh. The majority of the crop is sold to the American baking industry; Europe and Japan buy the rest. Like cultivated blueberries, wild blueberry production has increased rapidly in the last few years because of improved production practices, and. Northeastern Canada produces the remaining half of the worlds lowbush blueberry crop, selling 60 percent of the harvest to Europe and Asia and 20 percent to the U.

Thats to help the pickers thoroughly work through one area and not miss any fruit. The berries are picked in the cool morning and evening hours from late July to midSeptember with a hand rake that. It takes 6, to 8, rakers annually to pick the wild blueberries each summer! The picker sweeps the rake through the berry bushes in a semicircular motion, forcing the teeth to pull off the berries, which roll into the bowl of the rake. After the rake is run through the blueberry plants two or three times, the berries are slowly poured into a bucket to winnow out unwanted debris.

Many barrens offer Upick, but you need a strong back before you try it. A tractor-mounted mechanical harvester now picks about 20 percent of the crop in Maine and 80 percent of the crop in Canada. Blueberries wont ripen after harvest, so be sure the berries are fully ripe; avoid pale-colored or red berries in the container. Cover or store in self-sealing plastic bags in the refrigerator for up to 10 days. Rinse just before using. Pour the berries into self-sealing plastic. Blueberries are solid and will not stick together when frozen.

Their unsurpassed flavor is enhanced greatly by cooking. To keep the area surrounding the berries from turning blue, coat them with flour before adding them to dough or batter. They are good mixed with other fruits and nuts, especially almonds. Explorers, who learned from the Indians to eat buffalo berries with buffalo, named the berry.

John Shepherd, a Canadian botanist, and include the silver buffalo berry, russet buffalo berry, and roundleaf buffalo berry. They are closely related to sea buckthorn Hippophae rhamnoides. The berries are named after their silvery leaf; argentea is Latin for silvery. They range in height from three to 20 feet and produce ovalshaped scarlet or golden berries that grow in clusters.

While there are three species of buffalo berry, the berries commonly picked are from the thorny branched species S. The tart berries were made into a sauce for buffalo, pressed into cakes and smoked, and used. A red dye was made from the berries, and medicine was concocted from the leaves and bark. When the pioneers arrived, they made the berries into jams and jellies.

Pour the berries into self-sealing plastic freezer bags and freeze for up to one year. Substitute them in any recipe. These New World natives grow to 25 feet and are widespread in open woods and along streams with berries that grow in dense clusters. The fruits were commonly dried and shaped into cakes that were used with buffalo or other game meat in making pemmican.

A medicinal tea was made from the leaves. A variety of chokecherry trees, with yellow, orange, or red berries, is sold at nurseries for ornamental gardens. They will keep for up to. Put the chokecherries in self-sealing plastic freezer bags and freeze for up to one year. Chokecherries are solid and will not stick together when frozen. They have been used for centuries in the kitchen for preserves and wine.

Make them into jelly, syrup, vinegar, jam, or liqueur. Like cranberry juice, their juice is too tart to drink straight; add one cup sugar for every. The name cloudberry comes from the Old English word clud, meaning rocky hill. These perennial herbs are about three inches tall with a single berry.

The plants spread by rhizomes and produce amber raspberrylike berries in moist tundra and bog habitats. The berries were and still are gathered by indigenous peoples and used both unripe and ripe for food. In North America the Inuit, Haida, and other local Indians traditionally stored cloudberries in cedar boxes or barrels.

They are still a favorite for Indian ice cream, called agutuq pronounced a goo duck. Studies, called the Northberry Project, are currently under way in a joint effort with Finland, Norway, Sweden, and Scotland on the development of new improved cultivars of cloudberries that could someday lead to their successful cultivation. Hundreds of seedlings are being grown in the test.

The goal is to domesticate wild cloudberry plants and selectively breed them for resistance to disease and improved yield. Not only would the berries be more readily available to the public, they would provide a secondary income for local farmers, increase tourism, and help to revegetate old peat bogs. Pick berries that are completely golden yellow without any traces of red.

Freeze individually on a cookie sheet and then store airtight in selfsealing freezer bags for up to a year. They are traditionally eaten fresh, made into parfaits, stirred into ice creams, cooked into pies or preserves, or made into liqueur. Viburnum is Latin for wayfaring tree, referring to the trees bushy configuration, a n d edule acknowledges its edible berries. They are straggly deciduous shrubs that range in height from two to 12 feet and produce bright reddish orange berries that grow in small clusters. Look for them at low to middle elevations near moist forests and on banks of rivers and creeks.

These native berries have been domesticated and are popular as an ornamental plant in gardens. The fruit remains on the branch during winter, providing sustenance for local birds and animals. The unripe berries. These boxes of berries were greatly valued and given as prestigious gifts at special occasions.

The bark of the highbush cranberry bush was used to treat a variety of medical illnesses, from colds to infections. For many tribes in this region, highbush berry patches were so important they were owned by families and passed down from generation to generation. The fruit will become sweeter and more full flavored as it reaches maturity after the first frost. It will keep for up to a week. To freeze, first rinse the berries and drain thoroughly, then transfer. Store in self-sealing plastic freezer bags in the freezer for up to one year. Use the pulp in any recipe that calls for cranberries.

The Dutch named the cranberry, calling it kraneberre after the sandhill cranes that inhabited the coastal marshes during the birds annual migration. Not only did the cranes eat the berries, but their heads resemble the unopened cranberry flower. Their species name, macrocarpon, is Latin, meaning large macro fruit carpon. North America, Europe, and Asia, where they thrive in bogs and marshes created from deposits left by the receding glaciers 10, years ago.

As the ice melted, acid minerals were left in holes on a layer of clay that were eventually filled with water and organic matter, providing the ideal conditions for wild cranberries to flourish. In the northern United States, the true native American cranberry or swamp cranberry Vaccinium macrocarpon has become the basis for the commercial cranberry industry worldwide. Several relatives, such as the small cranberry V. The first record of cranberries being consumed comes from an analysis of a mug found in a Bronze Age tomb in Denmark that showed the remains of a fermented drink made from wild cranberries, grain, and bog myrtle.

In North America, the Native Americans. They made small pemmican cakes by mixing the mashed berries with dried venison, venison fat, and boiled cornmeal and drying them in the sun. Other favorites were cranberry succotash, made by cooking the berries with beans and corn, and a cranberry corn bread that was boiled and served with honey or maple syrup as a sauce. Cranberry juice was used as a dye for coloring blankets and clothing and as a medicine for wounds. Symbolically the cranberries represented peace and friendship among the tribes and were served at tribal gatherings.

The colonists learned how to harvest and cook cranberries from the Indians, and. The silver items were boiled in their acidic juice, and consequently the berries were often called goldsmiths berry. During whaling expeditions and voyages to China, American ships carried barrels of the vitamin Crich cranberries in spring water to protect sailors against scurvy.

Commercial cultivation started in the early nineteenth century on Cape Cod when a local farmer, Henry Hall, noticed that the wild cranberries in his bog that grew the best were the ones covered by a layer of sand blown in from the nearby sand dunes, a practice continued today. The sand helps protect the vines from weeds and insects, and the new roots that. The worlds commercial cranberry industry is based on the true American cranberry that is indigenous only to North America. Despite popular belief, cranberries do not grow in water. In production areas with cold winters, the bogs are flooded periodically to produce a protective ice layer over and around the plants.

In the. After the flowers finish blooming, the berries ripen in the warm summer sun until September or October, when they are harvested. If a wet harvest system is used, the bog is flooded up to 1 feet. A wheel churns the water, dislodging and floating the berries to the surface, creating a brilliant red bog that is a sight to behold. The berries are corralled onto conveyer belts by workers with long-handled rakes and taken to processing plants, where they are graded on color and size. Most of the berries from a wet harvest are made into juice and sauce.

While the majority of cranberries are wet-harvested for the juice market, some. They simultaneously prune the vines while picking the berries, which are then packed and sold for the fresh market.

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Pick the berries in the late fall when they turn a deep burnished red, indicating ripeness. The berries should be plump and firm, without indentations or soft spots. Inspect the package for crushed or shriveled berries before buying. Wash the berries just before using them. Freeze them in the bags they come in and use the frozen berries directly from the freezer. They will be good for at least a year. Rinse the frozen berries just prior to using. While most of us serve cranberry sauce during the holidays, few of us give this healthy fruit a second thought the rest of. Think of them as the lemons of the berry world.

Their tartness acts as a flavor enhancer when they are mixed with other fruits or berries, bringing out the best in both. Some cultivars of fresh cranberries, such as the dark purple Stevens, are sweet enough to be eaten fresh. Cut the berries in half and sprinkle them in green salads to add a splash of color. Cranberries freeze exceptionally well, so stock up on them around the holidays. Currant is derived from corran, a former British name given to the fruit because it resembled Corinths, the tiny Zante grapes imported from Corinth, Greece, and sold in English markets.

Ribes is derived from the Arabic name for these plants; nigrum is Latin for black. These woody deciduous shrubs reach a height of three to six feet when mature and produce pea-size black, red, or white an albino form of the red currant berries in clusters. While currants and gooseberries have many similarities and differences, the distinguishing feature that separates one from the other is that currants have smooth wood and gooseberries have thorns.

The common black currant Ribes nigrum , a native of eastern and central Europe, was first domesticated between and in western Europe. Several black currant species are native to the United States, and the common. Imported from Holland, the plants were slow to catch on and not as popular as red currants. By the sixteenth century they were being grown in gardens for food in France, but they did not become popular until the eighteenth century, when they were accepted as a food and medicinal plant. In England the juice was boiled with sugar as a treatment for sore throats, and the berries were preserved in brandy.

By the nineteenth century the commercial production of cassis began in. Dijon, making the fruit even more popular. In Russia black currants were and still are greatly valued. They are fermented into wine with honey, made into preserves, and, in Siberia, brewed into a healthy medicinal tea with their leaves. Currants were so highly regarded by the colonists that they brought plants with them when they came to the New World.

The Berry Bible : With 175 Recipes Using Cultivated and Wild, Fresh and Frozen Berries

The Native Americans used wild currants as a medicine by boiling the bark and roots for tea, which they used for a variety of ailments and conditions, from sore eyes to childbirth, and as a food source. Federation, Poland, Germany, Scandinavia, the United Kingdom, and more recently China are the leading world producers of black currants. Black currants have been popular for centuries in Europe and are widely grown for processing into juice, jams, jellies, liqueurs, desserts, meat sauces, and as flavorants and colorants.

Black currant juice, particularly under the label Ribena, is consumed in even greater quantities in Europe than Concord grape juice is in the United States. Production of black currants in the U. To combat the spread of the rust in the white pine timber. Even though the federal ban on growing black currants was rescinded in , and the decision was left up to the states, 17 states still prohibit their growth.

The development of new genotypes resistant to this disease has allowed many states to lift their restrictions. Black currants are grown in the eastern United States mainly for fresh market sales. In the Pacific Northwest they are produced and shipped nationally for the fresh market and locally processed into coulis, juice, and jelly. Black currants have a short season, so buy them as they are available.

Strigs the clusters of fruit of currants are picked by hand and easily lift off the bush when ripe. Before using, remove the currants from the stems with an upside-down fork or your fingers and rinse and drain. Currants can be frozen either on or. To freeze them on the strigs, first rinse the strigs and drain thoroughly, then transfer to a baking sheet lined with paper towels and pat dry. Put the strigs into self-sealing plastic freezer bags and freeze for up to one year.

The currants detach from the strigs when they are frozen, and the strigs can easily be picked out by hand just prior to using. To freeze currants off the strig, follow the instructions above except remove the currants from the stems first. Black currants are more. Their complex, dusky flavor is softened with a little sugar in juice, jams, and jellies, and their high pectin level means they set well.

My favorite way to use black currants is in sauces for dark game birds and meat. They also make an excellent sorbet, or try a handful tossed in a peach or apple pie. Berries from different cultivars will vary in sweetness, so add sugar judiciously. Currant is derived from. Ribes is derived from the Arabic name for these plants; rubrum is Latin for red. Golden currants grow in most of the United States with the exception of Vermont and Maine.

The North American wild red currant R. Like black currants, red currants are woody, fast growing, deciduous shrubs that reach a height of five feet when mature. The canes produce long flower clusters, called strigs, which bear about 12 pea-size red or white an albino form of the red currant berries. They first appear in literature as late as the fifteenth. In the apothecary to James I of England, John Parkinson, wrote that red currants were usually eaten fresh in hot weather or made into preserves, and the white currant, with a more pleasant winey taste, was popularly fermented into wine and distilled into brandy.

As new improved cultivars were developed, the plants became more popular in cottage gardens for cooking, as well as for making wine, juice, and homemade vinegars. One nineteenth-century British horticulturist, John Phillips, noted how to store the berries so they would keep for years in. If the bottle were packed, corks downwards, in a chest, and the space around them filled with sand, this would ensure their longest keeping.

In North America the Native Americans picked wild currants and ate them fresh and mixed and dried with other indigenous fruit. Their bark and roots were steeped for medicinal tea. Germany, Poland, France, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Hungary are the main world producers of red currants. In the United States, These bush berries are shipped internationally, nationally, and locally for the fresh market and processed into juice and jelly.

Luckily for cooks, they are gradually becoming more readily available at local farmers markets. The ripe berries, which contain three to 13 tiny seeds, are translucent. The fruit turns red before it is ripe, so let the currants hang on the bush for one to two. Unlike most other berries, currants can stay on the bush for up to two weeks after they are ripe without deteriorating. Strigs of currants are easily picked by hand and readily lift off the bush when ripe.

Before using, remove the currants from the stems with an upside-down fork or your fingers and. Currants can be frozen either on or detached from the strigs. To freeze them on the strigs, first rinse the berries and drain thoroughly, then transfer to a baking sheet lined with paper towels and pat dry. Discard immature and overripe fruit. White currants are slightly less acidic than red currants, but both can be used for the same recipes. Fresh red and white currants can be tossed into fruit salads, turned into intensely flavorful sorbets, or baked into pies or cobblers.

Their high acid and pectin levels also make them perfect for blueribbon preserves.

Berry Bible: With 175 Recipes Using Cultivated and Wild, Fresh and Frozen Berries

The famous French Bar-le-Duc jelly is made from white and red currants. Raspberries and red currants are particularly good together. Red currant juice can also be used in salad dressings and barbecue sauces. The name elderberry is likely derived from the Anglo-Saxon word ellaern, or aeld, meaning fire, for the trees hollow stems, which were used for blowing on a fire to get it started.

The scientific name for the black elderberry is Sambucus nigra, the American elderberry i s Sambucus cerulean, and the red elderberry is Sambucus racemosa. Sambucus is derived from the Greek word. You can find them growing in the understory of forests as a small tree or shrub, depending on the species, with red, blue, black, or white berries. The red elderberries can cause stomach upset and should not be eaten.

The leaves,. Hippocrates wrote about the healing properties of the elderberry in the fifth century B. Different cultures throughout history have used the elderberry and dried elderflowers to treat a variety of illnesses, from bronchitis to the flu. During Roman times the berries were used as a hair dye and over the centuries have been used to color cheap wines. In Portugal, when shady winemakers began to regularly use black elderberries as a grape substitute in cheap ports, it became illegal to plant black elderberry trees.

These ancient trees played an important role in Old World folk history.

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In England. The Native Americans steamed elderberries in baskets on hot wet rocks and stored the fruit underground or in water for winter use. The leaves were used for infections and to reduce swelling, and the bark was steeped for tea for stomach problems and colds. The Quinault Indians removed the pith from the stem and used it as a whistle to bugle for elk, while colonists used it to tap sugar maples for collecting sap for syrup and sugar making.

The largest commercial producer of elderberries in the world is Austria. A thousand Austrian elderberry growers formed a coop and built a large freezing facility in Thalhammerstrasse called Beerenfrost. The berries are sold throughout the world and used in juices, jams, fruit yogurts, wine, and extracts for nutraceuticals. Oregon has a few large plantings, and the fruit is primarily sold to companies, such as Smuckers, that make preserves and to out-of-state wineries. Germany and Denmark also grow elderberries, but on a much smaller scale.

Elderberries are raised commercially for nurseries and make lovely additions, especially the new, popular purpleleaf and cut-leaf forms, to ornamental gardens. Even if you dont use the berries in the kitchen, they are a favorite of many species of birds and will attract them to your yard. In Kansas a new agricultural industry based on the elderberry has started.

Semiretired wheat farmers and ranchers are growing elderberries for commercial products and are pleasantly surprised they can make as much money off a few acres of elderberries as a field of wheat. Cut the entire bunch of berries off the tree and keep them cool until you get them under refrigeration. These firm berries travel well. HOW TO STORE To remove the berries, hold the entire cluster over a bowl and, with a table fork turned upside down, gently run the fork through the berries to dislodge them from their stems.

Pick over the berries and rinse just before using. Store in the refrigerator for up to two to three days in a closed container. Freeze elderberries in self-sealing plastic freezer. Black and blue elderberries have been popular in Europe for centuries for making wines, jellies, and pies; in North America they were widely used by the Native Americans and pioneers. Elderberries are low in pectin and are best mixed with other high-pectin fruit like apples. Blossoms from the black and blue elderberry trees have been as popular with cooks as the berries. Their spraylike flowers bloom in May and are traditionally made into elderberry wine or fried in a batter.

No one is sure of the derivation of the name gooseberry, but it has been commonly used since the fifteenth century. Some suggest it comes from the old English custom of serving gooseberry preserves with a goose or from an adaptation of the French groseille. The French name groseille maquereau refers to the tradition that originated in England in the sixteenth century of serving gooseberries with mackerel. North American gooseberries are classified as R. These low, fast-growing deciduous shrubs with spines prefer cool, humid weather with winter chilling.

Their fruit is produced singly or in pairs from the stem of the plant and can be smooth or prickly. Wild gooseberries grow in abundance in the United States, where at least 16 species grow in the north and west, although a few can be found as far south as Texas. Worcesterberries are the fruit of the American coastal gooseberry R. By the s more than cultivars had been developed, attesting to their popularity. But during the next century, as England became more and more industrialized, gardens fell by the wayside as the manpower needed for cultivating specialty crops like gooseberries wasnt available.

As a result, growers formed a network of gooseberry clubscompeting to grow the largest gooseberries; some of the oldest. A hundred years later apples replaced gooseberries as a source of pectin, and with the world wars of the twentieth century the gooseberry industry was greatly diminished.

In North America wild gooseberries were eaten by the Native Americans fresh, dried in cakes, and gathered green and kept for winter use. The roots were infused to make a tea for sore throats, while the bark was soaked and the juices used for eye ailments. The Nisqually used the thorns for tattooing with charcoal. Small quantities are grown in North America, and their gene pool is from a combination of the European gooseberry Ribes uva-crispa and the American gooseberry Ribes hirtellum. Today there is a renewed interest in cultivating gooseberries, and several thousand cultivars exist in a multitude of colors from emerald green to ruby red and royal purple only the green, white, and yellow fruit are used for processing.

New cultivars not yet on the market include gooseberries that are teardrop and oval shaped that grow in a variety of colors. These spiny plants produce berries borne singly along the stems that range from pea size to the size of a large cherry. For the best flavor, pick berries that are ripe with well-colored fruit in early to midsummer. HOW TO STORE Unlike currants, gooseberries can be picked as they are beginning to ripen, just as the color starts to appear, and they will develop both flavor and color if kept in a self-sealing plastic bag with a damp paper towel in the refrigerator.

They will keep for two to six weeks. Before using, tip and tail them with a paring knife or kitchen scissors. This step is not necessary if you are making a recipe that will be strained after. Rinse the berries just before using. Freeze whole gooseberries, rinsed, drained thoroughly, and patted dry, in selfsealing plastic freezer bags for up to one year. Tip and tail the frozen berries by rubbing the fruit between two damp kitchen towels. You do not need to thaw them before cooking. Culinary gooseberries, generally smaller with thick skins, are not suitable for fresh consumption. They are picked green, when their pectin levels are at their highest, making them ideal for jams, jellies, and preserves.

If left on the bush,. The larger and often thin-skinned dessert gooseberries can be eaten fresh without cooking when they are harvested ripe. They can also be picked unripe and used for pies and preserves, like their culinary cousins. Some gooseberry cultivars fall into both categories. All gooseberries have a refreshing, distinctive flavor and astringency, similar to rhubarb, that is enhanced when the berries are cooked. Their tart kick particularly complements rich game meat, wild birds, such as goose and duck, and oily fish, so dont get trapped into thinking that gooseberries are used only for.

To make a simple sauce with them, tip and tail the fruit with scissors and cook them with a little sugar and water over medium heat until the fruit collapses and thickens. Cook the mixture down further to make Gooseberry Cheese. Physalis is Greek for bladder, referring to the paperlike calyx that encases the fruit.

There are more than 70 species of ground-cherries, and three of them have fruits that have been valued by cooks for centuries: husk tomatoes P. Tomatillos were domesticated in Mexico and were spread to Spain and the rest of the world with the Spanish explorers. While many varieties still grow wild, they are also a staple in home gardens, prized for the acidic bite they give to sauces and stews. Tomatillos are considered an essential ingredient in Mexican cooking. Cape gooseberries are a native of South America and were also spread by Spanish.

The earliest mention of their growing in Europe was included in records from a German garden in During the next years, these invasive plants spread throughout Europe, South Africa, Australia, and Hawaii. In temperate climates, Cape gooseberries are annuals, but they can live year-round in the topics, growing in a wide range of altitudes from 1, to 10, feet.

In the United States, husk tomatoes P. Of the three, only husk tomatoes P. Native Americans commonly ate them chopped in pemmican, and the colonists harvested these indigenous fruits until their cultivated crops, planted with seeds brought from Europe, began to produce. The Pennsylvania Dutch baked them in pies and made golden jelly with their tart fruit. Tomatillos, native to Mesoamerica from central Mexico to Central America , are an ancient fruit that has been found in archaeological excavations as far back as B. In pre-Hispanic times, it was preferred over the tomato and even then was greatly valued by cooks.

The Incas knew another early fruit from the same family, Cape gooseberries. These golden berries grow wild in the Andes and were distributed around the world by the Spanish explorers. Although they are known most commonly as the Cape gooseberry, they are not related to the gooseberry family.

Their name came from the Australians, who first imported them from the Cape of Good Hope at the turn of the nineteenth century. In Hawaii, where they have become. Tomatillos are cultivated in Mexico and Guatemala, where their cultivation became industrialized about 10 years ago.

Now 80 percent of the crop is shipped to the United States for the Hispanic community. Husk tomatoes were domesticated in the seventeenth century but are not grown commercially for their fruit. If the fruit ripens too much, its flavor will become bland and tasteless. The husks on husk tomatoes and Cape gooseberries will turn straw colored and. Husk tomatoes are rarely available commercially. If kept dry, it will keep for up to two months.

Black currants are grown in the eastern United States mainly for fresh market sales. In the Pacific Northwest they are produced and shipped nationally for the fresh market and locally processed into coulis, juice, and jelly. Black currants have a short season, so buy them as they are available.

Strigs the clusters of fruit of currants are picked by hand and easily lift off the bush when ripe. Before using, remove the currants from the stems with an upside-down fork or your fingers and rinse and drain. Currants can be frozen either on or. To freeze them on the strigs, first rinse the strigs and drain thoroughly, then transfer to a baking sheet lined with paper towels and pat dry. Put the strigs into self-sealing plastic freezer bags and freeze for up to one year.

The currants detach from the strigs when they are frozen, and the strigs can easily be picked out by hand just prior to using. To freeze currants off the strig, follow the instructions above except remove the currants from the stems first. Black currants are more. Their complex, dusky flavor is softened with a little sugar in juice, jams, and jellies, and their high pectin level means they set well. My favorite way to use black currants is in sauces for dark game birds and meat.

They also make an excellent sorbet, or try a handful tossed in a peach or apple pie. Berries from different cultivars will vary in sweetness, so add sugar judiciously. Currant is derived from. Ribes is derived from the Arabic name for these plants; rubrum is Latin for red. Golden currants grow in most of the United States with the exception of Vermont and Maine.

The North American wild red currant R. Like black currants, red currants are woody, fast growing, deciduous shrubs that reach a height of five feet when mature. The canes produce long flower clusters, called strigs, which bear about 12 pea-size red or white an albino form of the red currant berries. They first appear in literature as late as the fifteenth. In the apothecary to James I of England, John Parkinson, wrote that red currants were usually eaten fresh in hot weather or made into preserves, and the white currant, with a more pleasant winey taste, was popularly fermented into wine and distilled into brandy.

As new improved cultivars were developed, the plants became more popular in cottage gardens for cooking, as well as for making wine, juice, and homemade vinegars. One nineteenth-century British horticulturist, John Phillips, noted how to store the berries so they would keep for years in. If the bottle were packed, corks downwards, in a chest, and the space around them filled with sand, this would ensure their longest keeping.

In North America the Native Americans picked wild currants and ate them fresh and mixed and dried with other indigenous fruit. Their bark and roots were steeped for medicinal tea. Germany, Poland, France, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Hungary are the main world producers of red currants. In the United States, These bush berries are shipped internationally, nationally, and locally for the fresh market and processed into juice and jelly. Luckily for cooks, they are gradually becoming more readily available at local farmers markets. The ripe berries, which contain three to 13 tiny seeds, are translucent.

The fruit turns red before it is ripe, so let the currants hang on the bush for one to two. Unlike most other berries, currants can stay on the bush for up to two weeks after they are ripe without deteriorating. Strigs of currants are easily picked by hand and readily lift off the bush when ripe. Before using, remove the currants from the stems with an upside-down fork or your fingers and. Currants can be frozen either on or detached from the strigs.

To freeze them on the strigs, first rinse the berries and drain thoroughly, then transfer to a baking sheet lined with paper towels and pat dry. Discard immature and overripe fruit. White currants are slightly less acidic than red currants, but both can be used for the same recipes. Fresh red and white currants can be tossed into fruit salads, turned into intensely flavorful sorbets, or baked into pies or cobblers. Their high acid and pectin levels also make them perfect for blueribbon preserves.

The famous French Bar-le-Duc jelly is made from white and red currants. Raspberries and red currants are particularly good together. Red currant juice can also be used in salad dressings and barbecue sauces. The name elderberry is likely derived from the Anglo-Saxon word ellaern, or aeld, meaning fire, for the trees hollow stems, which were used for blowing on a fire to get it started.

The scientific name for the black elderberry is Sambucus nigra, the American elderberry i s Sambucus cerulean, and the red elderberry is Sambucus racemosa. Sambucus is derived from the Greek word. You can find them growing in the understory of forests as a small tree or shrub, depending on the species, with red, blue, black, or white berries. The red elderberries can cause stomach upset and should not be eaten. The leaves,. Hippocrates wrote about the healing properties of the elderberry in the fifth century B.

Different cultures throughout history have used the elderberry and dried elderflowers to treat a variety of illnesses, from bronchitis to the flu. During Roman times the berries were used as a hair dye and over the centuries have been used to color cheap wines. In Portugal, when shady winemakers began to regularly use black elderberries as a grape substitute in cheap ports, it became illegal to plant black elderberry trees. These ancient trees played an important role in Old World folk history. In England.

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The Native Americans steamed elderberries in baskets on hot wet rocks and stored the fruit underground or in water for winter use. The leaves were used for infections and to reduce swelling, and the bark was steeped for tea for stomach problems and colds. The Quinault Indians removed the pith from the stem and used it as a whistle to bugle for elk, while colonists used it to tap sugar maples for collecting sap for syrup and sugar making. The largest commercial producer of elderberries in the world is Austria.

A thousand Austrian elderberry growers formed a coop and built a large freezing facility in Thalhammerstrasse called Beerenfrost. The berries are sold throughout the world and used in juices, jams, fruit yogurts, wine, and extracts for nutraceuticals. Oregon has a few large plantings, and the fruit is primarily sold to companies, such as Smuckers, that make preserves and to out-of-state wineries.

Germany and Denmark also grow elderberries, but on a much smaller scale. Elderberries are raised commercially for nurseries and make lovely additions, especially the new, popular purpleleaf and cut-leaf forms, to ornamental gardens. Even if you dont use the berries in the kitchen, they are a favorite of many species of birds and will attract them to your yard. In Kansas a new agricultural industry based on the elderberry has started.

Semiretired wheat farmers and ranchers are growing elderberries for commercial products and are pleasantly surprised they can make as much money off a few acres of elderberries as a field of wheat. Cut the entire bunch of berries off the tree and keep them cool until you get them under refrigeration. These firm berries travel well. HOW TO STORE To remove the berries, hold the entire cluster over a bowl and, with a table fork turned upside down, gently run the fork through the berries to dislodge them from their stems.

Pick over the berries and rinse just before using. Store in the refrigerator for up to two to three days in a closed container. Freeze elderberries in self-sealing plastic freezer. Black and blue elderberries have been popular in Europe for centuries for making wines, jellies, and pies; in North America they were widely used by the Native Americans and pioneers. Elderberries are low in pectin and are best mixed with other high-pectin fruit like apples. Blossoms from the black and blue elderberry trees have been as popular with cooks as the berries. Their spraylike flowers bloom in May and are traditionally made into elderberry wine or fried in a batter.

No one is sure of the derivation of the name gooseberry, but it has been commonly used since the fifteenth century. Some suggest it comes from the old English custom of serving gooseberry preserves with a goose or from an adaptation of the French groseille. The French name groseille maquereau refers to the tradition that originated in England in the sixteenth century of serving gooseberries with mackerel. North American gooseberries are classified as R. These low, fast-growing deciduous shrubs with spines prefer cool, humid weather with winter chilling. Their fruit is produced singly or in pairs from the stem of the plant and can be smooth or prickly.

Wild gooseberries grow in abundance in the United States, where at least 16 species grow in the north and west, although a few can be found as far south as Texas. Worcesterberries are the fruit of the American coastal gooseberry R. By the s more than cultivars had been developed, attesting to their popularity. But during the next century, as England became more and more industrialized, gardens fell by the wayside as the manpower needed for cultivating specialty crops like gooseberries wasnt available.

As a result, growers formed a network of gooseberry clubscompeting to grow the largest gooseberries; some of the oldest. A hundred years later apples replaced gooseberries as a source of pectin, and with the world wars of the twentieth century the gooseberry industry was greatly diminished. In North America wild gooseberries were eaten by the Native Americans fresh, dried in cakes, and gathered green and kept for winter use.

The roots were infused to make a tea for sore throats, while the bark was soaked and the juices used for eye ailments. The Nisqually used the thorns for tattooing with charcoal. Small quantities are grown in North America, and their gene pool is from a combination of the European gooseberry Ribes uva-crispa and the American gooseberry Ribes hirtellum.

Today there is a renewed interest in cultivating gooseberries, and several thousand cultivars exist in a multitude of colors from emerald green to ruby red and royal purple only the green, white, and yellow fruit are used for processing. New cultivars not yet on the market include gooseberries that are teardrop and oval shaped that grow in a variety of colors. These spiny plants produce berries borne singly along the stems that range from pea size to the size of a large cherry. For the best flavor, pick berries that are ripe with well-colored fruit in early to midsummer.

HOW TO STORE Unlike currants, gooseberries can be picked as they are beginning to ripen, just as the color starts to appear, and they will develop both flavor and color if kept in a self-sealing plastic bag with a damp paper towel in the refrigerator. They will keep for two to six weeks. Before using, tip and tail them with a paring knife or kitchen scissors. This step is not necessary if you are making a recipe that will be strained after.

Rinse the berries just before using. Freeze whole gooseberries, rinsed, drained thoroughly, and patted dry, in selfsealing plastic freezer bags for up to one year. Tip and tail the frozen berries by rubbing the fruit between two damp kitchen towels. You do not need to thaw them before cooking. Culinary gooseberries, generally smaller with thick skins, are not suitable for fresh consumption. They are picked green, when their pectin levels are at their highest, making them ideal for jams, jellies, and preserves.

If left on the bush,. The larger and often thin-skinned dessert gooseberries can be eaten fresh without cooking when they are harvested ripe. They can also be picked unripe and used for pies and preserves, like their culinary cousins. Some gooseberry cultivars fall into both categories. All gooseberries have a refreshing, distinctive flavor and astringency, similar to rhubarb, that is enhanced when the berries are cooked.

Their tart kick particularly complements rich game meat, wild birds, such as goose and duck, and oily fish, so dont get trapped into thinking that gooseberries are used only for. To make a simple sauce with them, tip and tail the fruit with scissors and cook them with a little sugar and water over medium heat until the fruit collapses and thickens. Cook the mixture down further to make Gooseberry Cheese. Physalis is Greek for bladder, referring to the paperlike calyx that encases the fruit.

There are more than 70 species of ground-cherries, and three of them have fruits that have been valued by cooks for centuries: husk tomatoes P. Tomatillos were domesticated in Mexico and were spread to Spain and the rest of the world with the Spanish explorers. While many varieties still grow wild, they are also a staple in home gardens, prized for the acidic bite they give to sauces and stews. Tomatillos are considered an essential ingredient in Mexican cooking.

Cape gooseberries are a native of South America and were also spread by Spanish. The earliest mention of their growing in Europe was included in records from a German garden in During the next years, these invasive plants spread throughout Europe, South Africa, Australia, and Hawaii.

In temperate climates, Cape gooseberries are annuals, but they can live year-round in the topics, growing in a wide range of altitudes from 1, to 10, feet. In the United States, husk tomatoes P. Of the three, only husk tomatoes P. Native Americans commonly ate them chopped in pemmican, and the colonists harvested these indigenous fruits until their cultivated crops, planted with seeds brought from Europe, began to produce. The Pennsylvania Dutch baked them in pies and made golden jelly with their tart fruit.

Tomatillos, native to Mesoamerica from central Mexico to Central America , are an ancient fruit that has been found in archaeological excavations as far back as B. In pre-Hispanic times, it was preferred over the tomato and even then was greatly valued by cooks. The Incas knew another early fruit from the same family, Cape gooseberries. These golden berries grow wild in the Andes and were distributed around the world by the Spanish explorers.

Although they are known most commonly as the Cape gooseberry, they are not related to the gooseberry family. Their name came from the Australians, who first imported them from the Cape of Good Hope at the turn of the nineteenth century. In Hawaii, where they have become. Tomatillos are cultivated in Mexico and Guatemala, where their cultivation became industrialized about 10 years ago. Now 80 percent of the crop is shipped to the United States for the Hispanic community. Husk tomatoes were domesticated in the seventeenth century but are not grown commercially for their fruit.

If the fruit ripens too much, its flavor will become bland and tasteless. The husks on husk tomatoes and Cape gooseberries will turn straw colored and. Husk tomatoes are rarely available commercially. If kept dry, it will keep for up to two months. Rinse under cold water and discard the husk. To freeze, scald for two minutes and drain. Put in self-sealing plastic freezer bags and freeze for up to one year. Cooks prize them for their high pectin, which ensures a thick, luscious jam when they are cooked. In India, in fact, these berries are called jam berries.


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They are also slightly acidic, making them perfect for sauces to serve with rich meat. To use tomatillos, remove the husk and rinse the shiny green fruit in cold water. Some cooks like to cover them with cold water and gently simmer them for 15 minutes to remove some of the tart taste, but they can also be used fresh or chopped. Use them as you would a mild lemon or tart green apple, to enhance the flavor of whatever you are cooking.

The husk tomato is much sweeter than. The old name for the hardy kiwi was Chinese gooseberry. The name kiwi is a marketing term applied to the berrys larger cousin, the kiwifruit, by New Zealand exporters. This tiny. Hardy kiwi has male and female plants, so growers plant one male plant for every eight female plants to ensure pollination and fruit set. While kiwi is winter hardy to 10F to 25F and needs a long growing season, it is quick to break bud in the spring and often loses its crop to spring frosts. Hardy kiwi have been cultivated as ornamentals since the early s in the United States, but it is only recently that horticulturists have taken an interest in commercially growing these plants for their fruit.

Because they need extensive trellis systems for commercial production, it is expensive to establish plantings. Usually it is picked at the mature stage and allowed to ripen off the vine, like kiwifruit. Many cultivars of hardy kiwi are available for the home garden at nurseries. Does not freeze well. It is sweeter than a kiwifruit and can be used in any recipe that calls for grapes.

This tiny fruit has a range of ripeness and can be eaten when it is barely ripe and slightly tart; as it ages, the fruit will become softer, developing sweetness and a slight mint taste. I eat them raw as a snack food and sprinkled in salads. They can also be cooked into preserves, using a basic berry recipe. There are 50 species, and each plant has pink flowers that eventually bear fruit with 10 large, bony seeds that make a crunch when you bite down on them.

Eight species of huckleberries are grown in the eastern half of the United States and Canada. They are named for Joseph Gay-Lussac, a nineteenth-century French chemist and physicist. These perennial shrubs are not related to the garden huckleberry, which is a dark-fruited annual plant from the tomato and tomatillo family. Huckleberries grow in a variety of sites from the coastal heathlands on Long Island to 4, feet in the southern Appalachian Mountains. These deciduous and evergreen shrubs require welldrained acidic soil that can range from moist woodlands and bogs to dry rocky slopes.

They characteristically grow up to four feet and produce black berries with 10 seeds. The most common huckleberry is the black huckleberry Gaylussacia baccata. The Lenape Indians of the Delaware Valley relied on the huckleberry as well as other wild berries to supplement their diet. Myrtillus is the subcategory w i t h i n Vaccinium that includes all western huckleberries. Their name is derived from the resemblance of the huckleberry leaves to myrtle leaves. Huckleberries are classified in a separate category because they produce single.

Huckleberries and blueberries have from 10 to about 30 small seeds per berry, depending on the species. These small shrubs have berries that range in color from red to blue to purple to black and with and without a silvery bloom. You can occasionally find whitefruited plants. The most common western huckleberry. It is known as t h e black, thin-leaved, or globe huckleberry and grows throughout Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, Idaho, and western Montana and Wyoming.

Small pockets also grow in California, Utah, Arizona, and Michigan. This species is harvested from the wild by commercial fruit processors and made into an incredible array of food and cosmetic products. Equally prized for flavor, the Cascade or blue huckleberry V. It is often planted in home gardens. Bilberries are widely distributed in the cool regionsthe mountains, heaths, and moorsof both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, thriving in the damp climate and acidic soils at elevations ranging from 1, to 7, feet. They are a. Every few years after harvest the Native Americans burned the fields to keep the forest pushed back and to increase their huckleberry crop.

Many of these berry fields are still popular picking sites today. Huckleberries provided fresh food in the late summer and fall and dried berries the rest of the year. Like salmon, this reliable food source allowed the prehistoric Columbia River people to remain in semipermanent. In late August entire villages would move to the high Cascade Mountains and set up camps for the women to gather berries while the men hunted and fished. The women dried the berries on tule mats placed in front of a fire built alongside a smoldering log. The berries were turned constantly with a long, oarlike paddle until they were dry, which took from six to eight hours.

The fruit was packed into baskets and taken back to camp, where it was dried further in the sun. The dried huckleberries would keep for up to a year, providing valuable barter for fish and other goods at Indian trading gatherings along the Columbia River. Today Native Americans still gather. Many still use their traditional Indian baskets.

Huckleberries are one of three indigenous foods, the other two being salmon and roots, still honored annually by them in the Pacific Northwest. The annual Huckleberry Feast is held every fall to celebrate the arrival of the huckleberries and to give thanks to Mother Earth. In the past horticulturists have not been successful domesticating huckleberries. Field trials are currently under way in growing huckleberries as well as managing areas of wild huckleberry stands, like the wild. Huckleberries are widely harvested from the wild for commercial use in the northwestern United States and western Canada.

If you are in bear country, make plenty of noisemany pickers wear a bell and always be aware of your surroundings. You might even want to carry pepper spray. Remember, bears love huckleberries as much as you do, and they are bigger than you are. Use fresh berries within a few days of picking. To clean the berries, wrap a small, lightweight cutting board in a terry cloth towel with a high nap and rest it in the bottom of a colander. With the board tilted at a degree angle, pour the berries down the board.

The leaves and twigs will stick to the cloth. Briefly rinse the berries under cold running water and put in a colander to drain. Pour onto a baking sheet lined with a paper towel and pat dry. Store the berries in self-sealing plastic bags. Simply shake out the amount of berries you need and return the rest to the freezer.

The berries retain excellent quality for several years when frozen. Buy berries that are firm and fresh looking, without mold or berry juice on the outside bottom of the container. The berries are good eaten fresh or baked in pancakes, muffins, or desserts. Their flavor is enhanced even further when they are heated with a pinch of sugar and a few drops of lemon or orange juice.

Huckleberries make excellent sauces for game meats and birds, pies, tarts, and other pastries, and jams, jellies, and preserves. Frozen berries can be used directly from the freezer. These hybrids among R. Josta is the most commonly. In appearance, it looks like a cross between a gooseberry R. Like its currant parent, it is a thornless, deciduous shrub with dark fruit, but the fruit is the size of a small gooseberry with a less intense flavor than black currant.

Pronounced yustaberries in English, jostaberries originated in Germany but were not made widely available until Pick jostaberries when they are fully coloredreddish black to black and soft. To freeze, rinse the berries and drain thoroughly. Pour them onto a baking sheet lined with paper. Eat them fresh or use them as you would gooseberries or cranberries in sauces for meat or poultry or cooked in jams, jellies, and preserves.

Their flavor is enhanced when mixed with other fruits. The colonists who lived in the frigid northern climate of North America gave these berries one of their common names, serviceberry. In the early years, when a resident died during the winter, his or her body was saved for burial in the spring, when the ground thawed. With the arrival of warmer weather, the snowy white blossoms of the Juneberry were the first to bloom, and they were always used to decorate the casket. The French Canadians referred to the berries as Indian pear or petite poire since the berries of some of the species in this family resemble miniature pears.

Shadbush is the name given to these. It refers to the eastern variety that blooms as the shad are returning to their spawning grounds in the spring. Saskatoon is either the anglicized version of the Cree name for this berry missaskqua-too-mina or mis-sask-a-toomina plural sask-a-too-mina or the name of the place where stems of the Saskatoon bushes were gathered for arrow shafts: Mane-me-sas-kwatan.

Amlanchier refers to the French Provenal name amlanche for the European species, Amelanchier ovalis. Amlanche is derived from the Celtic w or d gauloise, meaning small apple. Most nurseries sell this shrub as Amelanchier. There are at least 12 different species of this perennial fruitbearing shrublike tree, although Amelanchier alnifolia is the most important for fruit production.

Hatterman-Valenti, a researcher working on Juneberries at North Dakota State University, calls these fruits the blueberries for alkaline soils. They are actually a pome, she told me, and more closely related to the apple than the blueberry. Their seeds resemble miniature apple seeds, giving them a chewier.

Members of this genus range in size from a shrub to a tree, which can grow up to 40 feet tall in a range of habitats from the plains to hillsides and swamps. These berries played a significant cultural role for the Native Americans who lived in. By holding the fruit up to the sun and burying it in the ground, they paid tribute to Mother Earth for her abundance of gifts. In the legends of the Klamath Indians of northern California, the first people were created from Juneberry bushes.

For the Blackfoot Indians their blossom symbolized spring in the tobacco planting ceremony. The sun dance ceremony was always held in the moon when the Juneberries were ripe July. When the four-day event was over, the chief would tell his people it was time to move to Many-berries, distant sites where they traveled annually and set up summer berry-picking camps. The berries were eaten in a variety of ways: fresh, dried like raisins, or mashed. The pulp was formed into small cakes and dried in the sun.

Pieces of the berry cakes were added to soups and stews or boiled with shredded berry shoots and dry leaves to make a tea. Pemmican, from the Cree word pimikan, meaning manufactured fat, was also made with dried smoked buffalo or other game that was pounded and mixed with melted fat and dried Juneberries or other dried berries or a mixture of dried berries. These high-protein cakes were not only sustenance for the Native Americans, but in later years the Indians sold them to the European explorers and buffalo hunters.

The straight-grained serviceberry wood was carved into arrows and used to. European settlers preferred Amelanchier wood for fishing poles and umbrella handles and the fruit for pies, jams, and jellies. Today thousands of acres on the Canadian prairies are commercially producing serviceberries. The industry started slowly in the s and has drastically increased in the last 10 years.

There are approximately saskatoon farms in. Canada with a mixture of cultivars, and the supply does not begin to meet the demand. About half of the orchards are Upick operations. In the United States the industry is in its infancy, with growing areas centered primarily in North Dakota and Kansas.

With an annual crop of 3, pounds, he has found this native fruit a wise alternative crop to wheat. He sold more than 12, trees in to five different states, so expect to hear more about Juneberries in the future. Pour the individually frozen berries into selfsealing plastic freezer bags and freeze for up to one year.

Substitute them in any blueberry or huckleberry recipe. Toss the berries with flour to keep the batter surrounding them from turning blue when baking. Use this fruit frozen directly from the freezer except when making pancakes. Thaw berries first for 20 minutes on a paper towel before adding them to the batter. The thin batter cooks so quickly the. When making jam, some frozen berries can be ground and cooked along with whole berries to give the jam a varied texture. As with many berries, sprinkling them with acid, such as lemon juice, or cooking them with acidic fruits, like sour cherries or rhubarb, brings out their flavor.

Almonds and almond extract enhance Juneberries nutty taste. Their species name, Vaccinium vitis-idaea , is derived from vacca, Latin for cow vitis, Latin for vine and idaea, referring to Mount Ida in Greeceliterally translated as the vines of Mount Ida. In the Old World, the subspecies V. In North America the smaller subspecies, V. These creeping, low-growing shrubs have adapted to a wide range of locations: as understory in forests, on the tundra, high on the moors and heath barrens, and in peat bogs and swamps.

The plants bloom once a year, producing brilliant ruby-red berries similar in appearance to. During the winter any berries remaining on the vine are highly prized by children, who eat them as frozen candy. The berries were eaten both fresh and preserved in oil to eat during the long, harsh winters. The leaves were made into medicine to treat a variety of disorders from gout to bladder problems. The lingonberry was first cultivated in , but even today most of the lingonberries sold on the world market come from the wild. Since plant breeders in southern Sweden have been working on the domestication of the wild lingonberry, and they have developed several cultivars.

The initial seeds were gathered from Sweden, but since then plants and seeds have been added from Russia, Lithuania, and Latvia. Similar experiments are taking place in Finland and Russia and, after eight years, have shown that lingonberries can be cultivated successfully on berry farms. Today lingonberries are grown in limited areas in both Germany and Sweden. In Sweden and Finland, lingonberries are considered the red gold of the forests and are the countries most important berries. They are the worlds leading exporters of lingonberries along with Russia and Canadaspecifically Newfoundland and Labrador.


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  • The majority of these berries are picked from the wild. In North America, lingonberries are grown commercially in six Canadian provinces and eight states, including Wisconsin, Alaska, Oregon, and Washington. It is interesting to note that while plants in the wild typically fruit once a year, when they are moved to a warmer climate with longer summers they will fruit twice. Most of the lingonberries. Lingonberries are harvested using hand rakes similar to those used for wild blueberries. Commercial growers are now planting lingonberries in rows like strawberries so they will be able to harvest them mechanically with strawberry-picking equipment.

    Store in an open container in the refrigerator for up to six to eight weeks. To freeze, first rinse the berries and drain thoroughly. Pour onto a baking sheet lined with paper towels and pat dry. Transfer to self-sealing plastic freezer bags and freeze up to a year. Substitute them in any recipe calling for cranberries.

    Arctostaphylos is derived from Arctos, Latin for the Great and Little Bear constellations, and staphyle, bunch of grapes, referring to the bears preference for the trees berries, which grow in small. Of the 73 species, 60 can be found throughout California, from the coast to the Sierra Nevada. They grow in many shapes and sizes from dense shrubs to small trees. In the winter the dried fruits were pounded into a pulp and used in drinks, while the seeds were ground into flour, pressed into a cake, and baked.

    The leaves were brewed into a medicinal tea. When the Spanish settlers and homesteaders arrived in California, they learned how to use the berries from the Indians. Put the berries in self-sealing plastic freezer bags and store for up to one year. These pea-size berries produce a fine jelly. Erroneously called a berry, this fruit is actually more closely related to an apple. Its named after the month the berries are ripeMay. They grow in swamps and bogs in the temperate southern climate from east Texas to Florida and up through Virginia.

    The trees produce small fruit like crab apples that are commonly red but can also be orange or yellow. Locals traditionally make jelly with the fruit, a pantry item that has been prized in the South for centuries. The berries are also cooked into sauces for. May hawthorn trees are widely cultivated in the United States for hedges. The seeds were boiled or roasted and used to make a drink similar to coffee. The easiest way to get them is to lay a tarp on the ground around the tree and shake the trunk.

    If the trees are growing in swamps, the berries need to be shaken off the tree and gathered in a boat using nets. In The Berry Bible, author Janie Hibler gets to the heart of these summer fruits, from their health benefits to their genus to how they are best put to use in the kitchen. An award-winning cookbook author and authority on the foods of the Pacific Northwest, Hibler offers recipes, along with 68 full-color identification photographs and an A-to-Z encyclopedia that details well-known varieties such as blueberries and blackberries and lesser-known cultivars such as manzanitas and Juneberries.

    Hibler traveled the globe in her quest for berry lore, facts, and recipes, visiting the Canadian prairie to search out Saskatoon berries; Alaska, to pick wild blueberries with the Indians; and Europe, to peruse the markets for the best strawberries. Her delightful history of 41 berries, and personal annotations on how to use and store them, inspire you to try her Brioche French Toast with Sauteed Berries or tender Marionberry Biscuits, while cooling yourself on a hot summer day with her Strawberry Mojito and refreshing berry lemonades.

    Hibler offers everything berry, from first course to last. In between, there's a chapter on how to wash berries, freeze them, measure them accurately, substitute them in recipes, and remove their stains, plus a primer on the magnificent creams -- whipped, creme fraiche, clotted, and Double Devon. There is also a chapter on berry preserves, jams, pickles, syrups, and toppings. The time is ripe to pick up The Berry Bible. Additional Product Features Illustrated. Show More Show Less. Pre-owned Pre-owned. See all Ratings and Reviews Write a review. Most relevant reviews.

    The best about berries!! Berrylicious reading and ideas! Great Condition!!! Best Selling in Nonfiction See all. Secret Empires by Peter Schweizer , Hardcover The Secret by Preiss et al.


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