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Interlocked with the 3-D prints was a four track magnetic stereo 35mm fullcoat on a sound dubber. Whenever something was thrown at the audience, the viewer went cross-eyed trying to merge the two images.

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When used to create a sense of distance between foreground and background, it was more effective. They also made dye transfer dual strip 3-D prints on features shot with color negatives and with Monopack positives. Dye transfer 3-D as well as standard 2-D features derived from color negatives did not have halftone key images printed under the dyes because they did not require registration adjustments, as did matrices derived from three strip negatives. In addition, the sharpness was increased since the matrices were made from a single element. Although color fringing was alleviated, grain increased, which bothered Kalmus.

He put his research department to work on an emergency basis, and the grain problem was resolved by Thereafter, dye transfer prints derived from color negatives had a grain-free appearance that surpassed Eastmancolor positives. RKO used the Monopack stock for their 3-D color films. Many of the features were interlocked with four channel magnetic stereophonic soundtracks, although all were printed with optical tracks.

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The Technicolor 3-D prints of the fifties really did give the illusion of depth. The fact that dye transfer prints generated a three dimensional appearance anyway helped the process. The most creative use of the process was in the previously mentioned Dial M for Murder , but by then it was too late. By the end of , 3-D has fizzled out, and other processes like CinemaScope and VistaVision attracted more attention. A specially prepared blank stock was created that had emulsion on both sides and the appropriate polarizing tints.

The right eye color image was transferred onto one side of the film and the left eye image on the opposite side. Both images were thus contained, with the polarized tints, on one strip of film, and the system required only one projector. The process could be resurrected some day by the Polaroid company and Beijing Film Lab.

After the success of Cinerama, 20th Century-Fox purchased the rights of the Hypergonar process credited to Professor Henri Chretien, who developed it in The Hypergonar process involved an anamorphic lens attachment screwed onto a standard 35mm prime lens. Fox dubbed the process CinemaScope and came up with an attractive logo. The first feature film released in the format was The Robe in October Although the release prints contained a 2 x 1 compression and unsqueezed 2. No backup optical track was printed onto the release copy, and the projected image included the area usually reserved for the soundtrack.

To play back the magnetic tracks a Pentouse adapter was necessary. A Penthouse was a small magnetic dubber attached to the top of the projector between the top magazine and gate. The film was threaded through the dubber, and the unit had four outputs that had to be wired to four amplifiers and speakers. This involved extensive theater modification, and exhibitors complained. It was one thing to get another lens attachment and a bigger screen but costly to rewire the entire sound system.

Fox stuck to its guns and released magnetic only CinemaScope prints on many titles through Eventually, exhibitor pressure forced Fox to modify the release prints to contain both magnetic and optical tracks. Theaters had the choice of playing the magnetic stereo tracks or a mono optical soundtrack. All CinemaScope films made after were distributed in this method, eliminating the magnetic only format. Since the optical track cropped the image slightly, the aspect ratio was permanently reduced to 2.

The first dye transfer prints of The Robe were a disaster. The latter was not entirely due to the matrix stock. The CinemaScope lens attachments cut down on the amount of light transmitted to the color negative and also tended to distort closeups, since the image was being photographed through so much glass.

These prints did not have the grain problem because the image was not being stretched out. Kalmus and Goldberg called an emergency meeting with Kodak to request an improved panchromatic matrix stock that would work with CinemaScope color negatives. According to Goldberg, Kodak showed interest in promoting their Eastmancolor process and suggested that Technicolor abandon the dye transfer format and switch to positive printing. Kalmus and company felt they had a unique product with superior color, contrast and quality control to Eastmancolor and went to other stock manufacturers for the solution.

A deal was struck with Du Pont to make upgraded dye transfer materials which were used on a number of features. Some of the VistaVision films used Du Pont materials, which were an improvement over the early Kodak panchromatic stock. Dye transfer prints made on Du Pont stock displayed less apparent grain and contained the identification on the sprockets. With the upgraded Du Pont materials, Kalmus went to Kodak and asked them to match it or lose their business. Since Technicolor was still their largest client, Kodak took a more enlightened attitude and improved their dye transfer matrix and blank stock, which eventually surpassed the quality of the Du Pont stock.

The remaining Du Pont inventory was used through and then discontinued. A new generation of Kodak matrix and blank stock, which replaced the earlier panchromatic films, was introduced in and again in A separate color sensitive matrix was developed that improved the resolution. The yellow matrix stock was sensitive to blue and ultraviolet light; the cyan was sensitive to red, blue and ultra violet, and somewhat sensitive in the green; and the magenta stock was sensitive to green, blue ultraviolet and a little to the red.

Appropriate filters placed over the Kodak or Ansco color negatives provided the desired separation in the optical printer. One could see the improvements from the scope IBs of The Robe. In the Radio City Music Hall screening of A Star Is Born , an original dye transfer copy printed on Kodak stock was shown that had excellent sharpness and little apparent grain, even on the enormous screen. Technicolor also made optical only dye transfer CinemaScope prints that had no mag tracks. This was accomplished by recentering the 2. The final scope dye transfer release copy had a slight edge cropping but retained the correct center of the frame and widescreen composition.

The competing Eastmancolor labs did not have this capability, since they were using the contact printing system, which did not allow for any adjustments. When a 2. The flexibility of the dye transfer process allowed the optical printer to crop the frame to any format required. For example, Technicolor was able to derive a masked 1. Some tides may have been printed in optical mono format for theaters not equipped with Penthouse adapters. Other titles were developed at competing labs and release printed at Technicolor.

Paramount got into the widescreen craze and introduced VistaVision in Although VistaVision was not really a widescreen process, it was adaptable to this kind of presentation. It entailed shooting with a large format negative, which improved the resolution of both contact positive and dye transfer release prints.

A standard 35mm negative was exposed horizontally during principal photography, using the equivalent image area of two frames. The uncropped aspect ratio was 1. From this horizontal negative, 35mm reduction matrices were made in a specially designed optical printer that enabled an eight sprocket intermittent movement. The soundtrack often contained a Perspecta sound, a method of encoding a standard mono optical track with subaudio tones of 30 cycles for the left channel, 35 cycles for the center channel and 40 cycles for the right channel.

When decoded, the mono signal was sent through three front speakers to generate directional pseudostereophonic sound. Exhibitors liked it because the Perspecta tracks could also be played as a standard mono signal, with the tones inaudible to the audience. General release copies were dye transfer reduction prints in the standard 35mm format. White Christmas was the first VistaVision film given both horizontal Eastmancolor as well as dye transfer reduction 35mm presentations.

Paramount suggested cropping the image to 1. It is uncertain whether Technicolor ever manufactured 35mm horizontal eight sprocket dye transfer prints. The major advantage to the process was a dramatic improvement in the conventional 35mm dye transfer prints. By reduction printing a large negative to a conventional 35mm size set of matrices, the grain structure was shrunk, which resulted in an ultrasharp IB print.

The fine grain image could be cropped and enlarged for the CinemaScope screens without a loss of quality. When standard 35mm dye transfer prints were cropped and enlarged, apparent grain was increased, since so little of the available frame was being projected. VistaVision retained a fine grain image when given this kind presentation. The general release VistaVision prints were so impressive, Paramount eventually phased out large format horizontal positive prints by and used the process exclusively for dye transfer reduction printing. Technicolor had a series of masks they used for the latter, although most were reduction printed with a 1.

White frame-line markings were contained on the first shot of each reel. Original 35mm dye transfer prints of these titles were true works of art and vastly superior to the Eastmancolor reissues of the eighties. Many of the early films were given large format presentations. All were reduction printed to standard 35mm Technicolor. Other studios adopted their own cropped ratios. The Walt Disney company used a 1. One of the first features to use this projector cropping was Universale 3-D production It Came from Outer Space , presented in a 1.

Later releases, like Thunder Bay , advertised as presented in Wide Vision, compensated for the cropping during principal photography so the heads and feet of the actors would not be chopped off, as they were when standard 1. As previously mentioned, apparent grain was increased and sharpness decreased when films were cropped and enlarged in this manner, since only a portion of the available image was projected. Dye transfer prints held up better than Eastmancolor prints because the rich colors and superior contrast of the former drew attention away from the problems.

VistaVision dye transfer reduction prints were best suited for this kind of presentation fig. In , the Technicolor research department developed a method of A and B rolling of the negatives of films processed there.

Each reel of the negative was assembled onto two rolls so that when a fade or dissolve was required, the effect could be incorporated directly into the matrix and the use of the grainy color internegative stock could be avoided. After , most dye transfer prints had sharp opticals, and Eastmancolor prints grainy opticals. Another major development from the research department was the Wet Gate Optical Printer, implemented in The printing gate contained a solution that had a refractive index similar to that of celluloid and that filled in scratches on the base of the preprint with the liquid so that light rays traveled at a consistent angle through the base.

The other color labs did not have this technology and often displayed scratches and cinch marks on their release copies. The superior color combined with the first generation opticals and scratch free image did not go unnoticed by the competing color labs. Throughout the fifties, many labs sent negatives processed at their facility to Technicolor for dye transfer release printing. Many WarnerColor features and some DeLuxe color titles were printed in the dye transfer process.

Some titles were printed in the dye transfer process only in London. There may be more features developed at other labs and printed at Technicolor not included in this list, since no printing records survive for defunct facilities like Warner Color or Ansco Color. Much of this list was compiled by film collectors who have preserved the bulk of the Technicolor release print output.

Few prints exist at the distribution companies — some cannot find their negatives! Par, Hatari! Who and the Daleks Ind, Ecco! Ind, Family Jewels Par, Git! Robinson Caruso U. In , Albert H. Reynolds and Dowlen Russell of Texas tried to re-create the Cinerama process using two rather than three cameras. When two interlocked projectors played the two prints, a 2. Only one feature was made in the process, Thrillarama Adventure , which played for one week in Houston, Texas, then closed.

Both panels were printed in the dye transfer process, with the left panel in the mag only format with fox sprockets, and the right panel silent with conventional sprockets. One complete print exists in a private collection. In , Fox tried to upgrade their CinemaScope process by adapting it for use with a large format negative. Kodak manufactured a special 55mm color negative and print film which was processed at DeLuxe. They named the process CinemaScope It used the same anamorphic compression as the 35mm format, retaining the 2.

Since a larger negative was used, sharpness and resolution were increased. Another development was the use of anamorphic prime lenses rather than attachments. A series of lenses was created with different focal lengths that had the squeeze built in which had foreshadowed the Panavision anamorphic system.

Fox noticed the quality of the VistaVision reduction prints coming out of Technicolor and had DeLuxe build them an optical printer to derive standard 35mm scope prints from the 55mm negative. The 35mm Eastmancolor scope reduction prints of the first feature, Carousel , were so sharp that it was never shown in the large format. The second feature, The King and I , also made in , reportedly played 55mm for some limited engagements.

Although better than standard 35mm scope positives, reduction printing in Eastmancolor did not work as well as it did in the dye transfer process. For the reissue, Fox sent the reduction 35mm internegative to Technicolor and had 35mm dye transfer prints made in a cropped 2. Both 55mm features were also printed in the 16mm dye transfer scope process as well. Future large scale Fox films were shot in 65mm. In the rush to widescreen, Howard Hughes and his RKO company wanted to compete, but the billionaire had no intention of paying a franchise fee to Fox for use of their CinemaScope lens attachment.

He made a deal with the Tushinsky brothers, equipment manufacturers, to develop a new anamorphic system known as SuperScope. All SuperScope entailed was the adaption of a standard 1. Since the frame was being cropped and enlarged, the resulting dye transfer release prints were grainy and lacked sharpness.

The SuperScope prints were made in a 2 x 1 ratio by printing black borders on the sides of the image fig. A projector plate would crop the image, but a standard anamorphic lens could be used. The Tushinskys also made a new kind of lens attachment that was really a box with two mirrors that gave a variable anamorphic compression, in the event future formats were introduced that did not use the standard 2 x 1 compression.

The Tushinsky SuperScope projection attachments were difficult to adjust, and no matter how an operator turned the knob on top of the box to unsqueeze the image, it looked slightly distorted. Since the same 2 x 1 ratio could be achieved by cropping a standard release print without adding anamorphic compression, and since the resulting print had less grain, SuperScope was a pretty worthless process and was quickly phased out after Hughes sold RKO to General Tire in Several features that were originally released in 1. The last was the most ridiculous; each animated sequence was given a different cropped aspect ratio, including an anamorphic squeeze in some that made the figures appear fat.

The only interesting thing about this version was that it was the only dye transfer reissue that contained the Fantasound stereo tracks in the magnetic only format. Future stereo reissues of Fantasia were in the Eastmancolor process and lacked the vibrant colors and rich contrast of the Technicolor originals. One of the partners in the Cinerama company was veteran theatrical showman Michael Todd. He had supervised the European sequences of This Is Cinerama.

Todd had reservations about the join lines that made up the widescreen image and the problems of keeping so many separate elements in synch. He sold off his interests in Cinerama and decided to develop his own proprietary format that would simulate the panoramic image without the join lines and contain the stereo tracks on the release copies. Todd formed a partnership with Dr. A set of extremely wide angle lenses was developed that attempted to replicate the field of vision of Cinerama.

Todd had Kodak manufacture him a special 65mm negative stock for principal photography. For contact positive release prints, Kodak developed a 70mm stock. The extra 5mm was necessary for the six channels of magnetic strips applied to the base inside and outside the normal sized sprockets. The projected aspect ratio was 2.

The Todd AO 70mm release prints, with their improved sharpness and resolution, represented the best quality available in the Eastmancolor process at the time. Since the wide frame was spherical rather than anamorphic, Todd AO prints displayed none of the distortion associated with the CinemaScope attachments. The only problem with the process was adapting it to 35mm for general release: There were no 35mm projectors in the U.

The first Todd AO production, Oklahoma! During principal photography, the actors had to perform their roles for the 65mm cameras and then play the same scenes over to be shot in 35mm CinemaScope. Technicolor made the 35mm dye transfer magnetic only release prints in the full frame 2. I, lab manufactured the 70mm positives. It was obvious that the CinemaScope version was inferior to the 70mm version.

For his own production of Around the World in 80 Days , released in , Todd wanted the capability of making top-notch 35mm dye transfer general release copies as well as large format prints. His approach was both unusual and typical of the showmanship common in this era.

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Two 65mm negatives were exposed during principal photography. The grain structure was finer, which increased apparent sharpness. VistaVision, Todd AO and other large negative printdowns represented the best color image possible on 35mm film. The method of making the 35mm prints was similar to the VistaVision process. The 65mm negative would be reduced in an optical printer to 35mm by adding an anamorphic compression to the matrices.

The three matrices were then transferred in a conventional manner. Several different 35mm versions were made of Around the World in 80 Days. For four-track magnetic-only prints, the 24 frames per second 65mm color negative was reduction printed to full frame matrices using the entire silent aperture ratio with a lesser 1.

When unsqueezed in a SuperScope variable anamorphic attachment, the 70mm aspect ration of 2. These unusual 35mm dye transfer prints also had a Perspecta encoding on the rear channel to direct the sound to three speakers in the back of the theater. This same version was released in England but transferred onto thinner 34mm blank stock to get around the 35mm import fees and derived from the 30 frames per second 65mm negative. Special motors had to be adapted to screen these 35mm Technicolor copies, referred to as Cinestage prints, at the faster 30 frames per second speed.

No Cinestage copy seems to have survived. For general release, the 24 frames per second 65mm negative was reduction printed to matrices with a conventional 2 x 1 squeeze and a projected aspect ratio of 2. This resulted in a slight cropping on the top and bottom of the 2. General release Technicolor prints of Around the World in 80 Days were made with a Perspecta optical soundtrack.

The picture was a tremendous hit and won the Academy Award for Best Picture of , although Todd had to sell off his interests in both Cinerama and Todd AO to finance the film. Sadly, he died in a plane crash while on a promotional tour, and the world lost a great showman.

After his death, the distribution of the film passed through two companies who proceeded to cut the negatives and allow them to deteriorate. The new Eastmancolor prints display serious negative fading and are 40 minutes shorter than the original Roadshow. Fortunately, a number of uncut 35mm Technicolor prints exist in archives and private collections. After Todd died, the Todd AO company decreased the speed to the standard 24 frames per second to make reduction printing easier.

Most of the remaining Todd AO productions were released in the dye transfer process in 35mm, resulting in superior sharpness, albeit with a slight cropping on the top and bottom of the frame. One way to make huge profits in the fifties was to own and sublicense a new widescreen process.

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Fox was raking in money by licensing their CinemaScope lenses. Kalmus put his research department to work on creating their own proprietary widescreen method, which they called Technirama. Technirama was a combination of VistaVision and CinemaScope. The research department devised a series of lenses that added a slight 1. During matrix manufacture, the negative was given an additional compression as it was reduction printed to generate a standard 2. With the introduction of Technirama, Technicolor was able to offer an ultrasharp scope image that rivaled the quality of Todd AO reduction IBs but had the advantage of using 35mm rather than 65mm film for principal photography.

Meanwhile, the popularity of 70mm Roadshow prints inspired the research department to modify the process further. They adapted a printer to optically derive a 70mm positive from the 35mm Technirama negative, thus launching Super Technirama As previously mentioned, optical printing in Eastmancolor did not work as well as it did in the dye transfer process. The grain structure of the silver halides that generated the latent image of the matrix was finer and more precise than the dye couplers exposed during Eastmancolor reductions or enlargements.

As a result, the 70mm optical prints derived from Technirama negatives were not as good as those contact printed from 65mm negatives, although audiences probably would not have noticed the difference. The bulk of the release copies of Super Technirama 70 features continued to be 35mm dye transfer prints. The cameras used for Technirama features were modified three strip units.

The Panavision company supplied the lenses for the process. The Panavision company entered the widescreen field in with its improved series of anamorphic lenses. A series of standard prime lenses 25mm, 50mm, etc. This resulted in a scope image that was sharper than that shot with CinemaScope attachments. The first dye transfer release to be photographed with the upgraded Panavision primes was The Big Circus in Other studios began using these lenses throughout the sixties, while Fox stayed with their CinemaScope attachments.

Eventually, Fox switched over to Panavision, and the obsolete attachments were abandoned except for use in some independent, low budget features. The Cardinal was the first feature presented this way. As with any optical enlargement, the 70mm prints made in this fashion were not as sharp as those made from 65mm negatives. Given careful handling of fully exposed 35mm Panavision negatives that used high key lighting, the blowups could look good. In all cases, the bulk of the release prints were made in the 35mm dye transfer process see fig.

General release prints were in the dye transfer process. A number of other anamorphic systems that used lens attachments or primes came and went over the years. Most were comparable to CinemaScope quality; all fell short of the Panavision optics. Listed below are the names of the formats and studios that released the film. The Panavision company developed anamorphic lenses for 65mm camera units that contained a slight 1.

The 70mm Eastmancolor positives were printed and shown in the six track Todd AO format. For projection, an anamorphic lens with the same 1. Only two features were made in this process. The first film, Raintree County , had reduction matrices derived from the anamorphic 65mm negative in the standard 2. The dye transfer reduction copies had comparable quality to Todd AO and Technirama prints, although the edges of the image were slightly cropped. When unsqueezed, the complete 2.

Special projection plates had to be made to crop the borders. It would appear that all dye transfer prints contained magnetic and optical tracks. Matrices were shipped to the London Technicolor facility, which made mono optical copies. Although the process was discontinued after Ben-Hur , the Panavision company developed a near identical process named Ultra Panavision 70, which was used for a few features and some single panel Cinerama releases in the midsixties. A different 65mm camera was used for principal photography; otherwise, the aspect ratio was the same.

The 35mm dye transfer reduction prints were made on all titles in the cropped 2. In , Kalmus and associates launched Technicolor Italiana in Rome, and the new facility began making dye transfer prints for the European markets not handled by the London lab.

Technicolor Italiana continued to use the dye transfer process for several years after the U.


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According to the surviving U. As the fifties came to a close, the aging Kalmus decided to retire. He had achieved his goal of creating a near perfect color image with the advent of large format photography and dye transfer reduction printing. No other multihued process was able to match the ultrasharpe appearance, vibrant color or grain free image. For standard flat and scope releases, the competing laps like WarnerColor and DeLuxe continued to send their top features to Technicolor for dye transfer printing. Technicolor expanded its facility to include large format positive printing. The 70mm Roadshow prints of South Pacific and Porgy and Bess were made there, along with the 35mm dye transfer reduction copies.

Both formats featured first generation opticals via A and B roll negative process and scratch free images due to wet gate printing. For second run theaters and reissues, Eastmancolor features posed a real problem. The release prints were faded as well. After the release of Spartacus , Kalamus went on a European vacation and retired from management. He assumed that the standards he set would be maintained by his staff. Unfortunately, some in business outside of the industry noticed the price of Technicolor stock soar.

One of them was Patrick Frawley, who made his fortune marketing the Bic pen. When Kalamus returned, he had lost his influence on the process he had nurtured and perfected for 32 years. Haines, Richard W. The History of Dye Transfer Printing. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland, pp. This rarely used process is employed in the arts field and for making particularly stable colour prints. Three sensitised gelatin matrices are prepared corresponding to the blue, green and red tricolour selection, which form images in relief.

These matrices, inked with yellow, magenta and cyan dyes, printed on the same gelatin-coated paper base give a co our photograph. The process, called Dye Transfer, has been launched by Kodak. Il colore nei mass media tra e Reggio Emilia: Edizioni Diabasis, pp. Its original negative stock therefore was essentially three layers of black and white film on a single base mutually self-filtering and recording information about the red, blue and green light entering the lens. In processing, this information was converted into dyes for printing.

This could be done conventionally or with the richer, slower imbibition method. The Film Reader. New York: Routledge, , pp. Color also emphasizes the emotional register of the film. Yet analysis of the color system of All That Heaven Allows does not merely show that the film is an exemplary instance of color participating in the conventions of melodrama.

As we shall see, color has three additional functions in the film: 1 as part of the realist aesthetics of the Hollywood film; 2 as a device for pulling the film away from or decentering it from conventional Hollywood film practice; and 3 as a means of blocking concentration on the story and thereby impeding the emotional trajectory of melodrama. It is not compartmentalized into separate family or social functions.

Social interaction is flexible in this adaptable space; it is more intimate, less formal. This opposition is made visible through the design of interior space and the degree to which characters can comfortably move within it. It is rougher in texture and the furniture appears more casually placed in the room.

This use of color in the narrative space has meaning in that it helps to make the contrasts in lifestyle visible. However, the color system and realist narrative space in All That Heaven Allows do not simply establish a binary opposition between suburban conformity and an alternative Walden-like existence. Color also functions in excess of narrative primacy in several ways.

Color functions as a signifier of the psychic and sexual energy that cannot be contained or expressed by the narrative in the usual ways. In this scene the potential of color to function as spectacle is not solely motivated by the emotional register of melodrama. The scene begins when Kay enters her room, tossing her jacket down on a chair by a window that is apparently constructed of stained glass. Fabric has been positioned outside the window to give the effect of colored glass.

While this scene is an isolated and conspicuous instance of color that is neither harmonious nor uncomplicated, the film uses red, yellow, and blue in similar ways. These colors are within the conventions of realist color filmmaking, and they also comment on the ideologies the film takes up. Red is sometimes obedient to color conventions in that it functions as a specific signifier of character and narrative development. When Cary decides to rejoin the social world on her date with Harvey, her children take notice of her red dress.

In her prior social excursions outside the home Cary wore a black velvet dress more suitable to her status as a widow. The strength of the color red also functions to markedly separate Cary from other characters and from the settings of her home and the country club. She stands out as protagonist as her character progresses through the narrative. Kay has undergone a transition from an immature and cold intellectual to a woman who is loved. Cary, having succumbed to the pressure of her children and turned away from a relationship with Ron, listens to Kay in some misery.

The red costumes each woman wears stand out against the more uniform color of the mise-en-scene. Yet these costumes also have specific meaning for the narrative and for the development of the characters of Cary and Kay. When Cary walks through the Christmas tree lot after her breakup with Ron, men in red jackets interfere with viewer identification of Ron, who is also in a red jacket, standing on the truck. The color system of the film does not always use red to separate objects or characters from the setting in order to emphasize the narrative or to comment on ideologies.

Unlike the color red, the colors blue and yellow appear to participate in more uniform color systems. Throughout the film blue is a signifier for nighttime while yellow indicates warm interior lighting. The evening after Ron and Cary meet, Cary has placed the tree branches Ron has given her in a vase on her dresser. The deep blue from the night and the yellow from the hallway compete for viewer attention, making it unclear where the eye should go in the narrative space.

This use of color complicates the otherwise realist narrative space of the bedroom. But at this point the combination of blue and yellow does not yet function as a specific signifier of narrative meaning. The yellow from the interior and the blue from the night are visually contentious. Blue and yellow in combination complicate the realist narrative space and help to. In one scene blue comes very close to functioning as an emphasis in itself, intruding on the realist narrative space. After the Christmas scene in which Cary learns that her children have plans to live their own lives outside of the family home, Cary comes to regret her decision not to marry Ron.

She wanders around her living room and possessions. It is night and Cary pauses in an intense blue light. While this blue is not a specific signifier of narrative meaning, it does serve to capture Cary in this space. Because the intensity of the light exceeds verisimilitude, it is somewhat disruptive to this narrative space. In All That Heaven Allows , however, Moorehead functions more strongly as the source of color spectacle than Wyman does. However, using color to embed Cary within narrative space is also a subtle way of underscoring the primacy of the melodrama narrative.

Sara is separated from the background by color while Cary wears the blue-grey tones of her suburban home. However, even as the color system of All That Heaven Allows splits the functions of protagonist and spectacle between Cary and Sara, at a key moment in the film this split subverts the emotional trajectory of the melodrama.

A maid is vacuuming the hallway floor in the background while Sara, in an orange dress, talks with Cary about her decision. The color system in All That Heaven Allows is very complex whether considered within the conventions of color film practice or within the conventions of melodrama. In some very orthodox ways the color system of the film helps make ideologies visible by giving material existence to the oppositional social formations that structure the film. Research into the industrial conditions of production of All That Heaven Allows and other s color melodramas can further our understanding of the apparent contradictions between melodrama and studio-produced commercial entertainment.

Fassbinder, Rainer Werner. Edinburgh Film Festival. Mulvey, Laura. London: British Film Institute. Neale, Steve. Cinema and Technology: Image, Sound, Color. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Color, Narrative Space and Melodrama. In narrative films the meaning of color is primarily contextual, arising from the association of a color with a character, event, object, or situation that gives it meaning. To some extent, this mirrors the status of color as an epistemological phenomenon.

It takes its identity, in part, from the object possessing that particular color. As an attribute of the object, it has no object status in itself in this way, it resembles sound which is always the sound of something; a color is always the color of something. As an attribute of the purse and these other objects , yellow takes its meaning as a color from them and from its relation to other colors in the film. The color yellow is associated with the use of money to buy affection: as Bill Paul suggests, in the scene in Mrs.

Yellow is used to signify the power that position and wealth gives to certain characters. The color red, however, behaves differently. When Marnie encounters red, the nature of the object that is red is less significant than the fact of its redness; she responds primarily to the color, not to the object.

Take, for example, the first bright red object — the red gladioli. However, Marnie reacts to the flowers before she knows of their association with Jesse and she clearly reacts not to the flowers but to the color red, a reaction made clear by the red suffusion over her reaction shot.

The attribute of red functions independently of the as-yet unknown meaning of the flowers. The gladioli turn out to be an exception that proves the rule — the rule that red objects resist the obvious chain of associations characterized by the color yellow. The red gladioli would seem to have no apparent connection to the red ink, the polka dots, or the hunting jacket. In other words, unlike most color films, where color plays a secondary role as an adjectival property of an object which is primary and takes on the meaning of that object or chain of objects, the color red in Marnie enjoys an independent existence.

Its relation to its object is often obscure. This chapter thus argues that the color red in Marnie is more than any single object; it has a meaning that transcends the objects with which it is associated. The mystery at the heart of the film is not that of a typical detective whodunit.

It is not the nominal, outer identity of the criminal that is in question but her inner identity. The mystery is not who stole the money but why. If we can discover why she responds so to red or what red means to her, perhaps we can uncover the source of those problems and solve the mystery. As such, they are objectifications of it and of her trauma. They are signs that point to an experience that has been repressed. The red suffusions mark the return of that repressed.

Initially an attribute of an object, red becomes, over the course of the film, an object in itself. But the meaning of the color red is blocked — both for Marnie who is unable to understand her traumatic responses to the color and for the audience who, though in no way traumatized as Marnie is, experience the red suffusions as incomprehensible barriers to any access to the character of Marnie herself. The meaning of the color red has been repressed by both Marnie and the film.

It is only at the end, when the color red is reconnected with its object, that the blockage will be removed and the mystery of the color red resolved. If color, like everything else in classical Hollywood cinema, is typically characterized by transparency, the color red in Marnie is non-transparent, opaque — at best, translucent. Of course, the color red, especially with the value and saturation that it has been given here by the Technicolor dye transfer process, enjoys a natural, eye-catching visibility. But the red suffusions necessarily differ from red colored objects in that they are inherently expressionistic, calling attention to themselves as intrusive markers of heightened subjectivity.

They are symptomatic manifestations of the hysteria that erupts and momentarily paralyzes both the character Marnie and the normal operations of the film text itself. The red suffusions quite literally constitute a blockage that obscures meaning — they function like curtains that have been drawn at crucial points between the narrative as it unfolds and our access to it. The red suffusions with one notable exception are presented primarily as subjective, traumatic affect in reaction shots.

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Though prompted by red objects or other traumatic stimuli, they exist independently of those off-screen sources. These red suffusions mark the transformation of a simple diegetic color — e. The mystery of the suffusions is complicated by the fact that they are not always responses to the presence of the color red. There are a total of seven suffusions. Four of these are prompted by a red stimulus. In these exceptions to the rule, Marnie responds to audio and audio-visual stimuli. The suffusions also occur during a thunder and lightning storm.

During the storm, the red suffusions shift from reaction shots of her face the norm for six of the seven suffusions to a red suffusion over her point-of-view shot of a white curtain. This is the notable exception referred to earlier: the red suffusion shifts from her reaction shot to her point-of-view pov shot. The storm sequence does the same. These various audio and visual motifs allude to a primal scene of sorts, to a traumatic event whose repression has left behind a disparate assortment of fragmentary pieces that remain-illegible until the penultimate sequence of the film.

They are clues to the mystery that Hitchcock and his screenwriter, Jay Presson Allen, have planted that will pay off in the final flashback. The common denominator that binds these motifs together into a single scenario is that of the red suffusions. Structurally, the pattern is remarkable in its order and overall symmetry. Hitchcock alternates between red and non-red stimuli see italics. The two nightmares occupy the second and the penultimate positions in the pattern see boldface.

And the pov shot stands at its center see boldface and italics. Red Suffusions 1. Red Gladioli 2. First Nightmare three taps 3. Red Ink 4. Lightning Storm red tinted pov shot 5. Second Nightmare three taps 7. Red Hunting Coat. At the same time, the last three red stimuli constitute a clear progression that culminates in the final images of the flashback and that clarifies the interconnection of red and white introduced in the first instance of red gladioli against a white window curtain.

The drop resembles a drop of blood; even her co-workers think that Marnie has been injured, reinforcing the association between red and blood, which Marnie has repressed and which she, knowing that it is only red ink, denies. At the race-track, Marnie visits the paddock to see Telepathy, a horse she once saw train as a two-year-old.

At the hunt, the connection between red and blood is directly established. As the hounds tear at the captured fox and the other members of the hunt look on with amused smiles on their faces, Marnie reacts in horror. This time, she sees a scarlet riding jacket, which sets her off. In each instance, from one drop of red to several polka dots to the red drenched jacket, red has taken us closer and closer, through its tangle of associations, to the repressed killing of the sailor.

Like the earlier game of free association, which works on a verbal level, this sequence of color associations involving red and shirts is anything but free — it is carefully calculated to get us and Marnie closer and closer to the truth. The action is seen through stylizing devices which mark it as traumatic.

The color used here is desaturated. It looks faded, evoking the past. This desaturated color makes the intensity of the climax all the more powerful when the frame fills with highly-saturated, bright red blood. By detaching red from red objects, Hitchcock explores the gap between color and object, extending it to create a color mystery.

In detaching red from its objects, Hitchcock engages his audience in a game of detection in which the meaning of the color red is the goal. Red proves to mean blood.


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  8. One might ask how the solution of the color mystery in Marnie can hinge on the rather trite revelation that red stands for blood. We all know that; it is one of the most common cultural associations that the color has. Does the film merely pretend that there is a mystery on the level of color, when all along there is no mystery? Is the mystery manufactured? The point, I think, is that though the meaning of the color red is obvious, it is repressed — both by Marnie and by Hitchcock, who encourages us to continue to look for its meaning, who prolongs that whole process as part of a narrative strategy that links us ultimately with Marnie.

    Like her, we recover a meaning that we had repressed because it was so obvious. The slow disclosure of the meaning of red engages the spectator in a psychoanalytic process, as if red were an element of the recurrent nightmare that Marnie has. There is no red in her nightmare. It is one major element of the original trauma that Marnie has repressed. She recalls the lightning storm, the three taps, being taken from a warm bed into the cold, and the men in the white suits. It is thus the crucial element that, when identified, will solve the mystery of her recurrent dream and lead hopefully to her cure.

    The fact that Rosebud is a sled explains nothing about what Rosebud meant to Kane. It stands in for everything that Kane desired but which eluded him; it stands in for a profound inaccessibility that thwarts desire. It is not just blood. Nor is it the sum total of the trauma depicted in the flashback.

    It is everything that the film says and leaves unsaid about its central character, her relationships with others, and her experience in the world. Paul, W. Belton ed. Peucker, B. Leitch and L. Sarris, A. Belton, John: Color and Meaning in Marnie. History, Theory, Aesthetics, Archive. New York, London: Routledge, pp. Harris drove to an underground archival vault in Greenwich, Connecticut, where he would store each newly found piece of lost footage from Lawrence Of Arabia. The vault had been specifically built to preserve magnetic computer records for some of the large corporations in the area, and it suited his needs for proper humidity, temperature, and safety.

    Harris had seen the camera negative, and it was warped, dried, and the splices were starting to open. He knew, too, that it was fading, or changing, as camera negatives do. It was 26 years old. The negative was in Eastman color, and when Eastman color negatives deteriorate the blacks are lost. They go dark green or dark brown, depending on where the shift is in the dyes. The first print Harris saw off the negative was extraordinarily yellow. He was concerned about his chances of saving the film at all.

    About two weeks before Harris was to go out to the West Coast for the actual restoration phase of the project, Sir David Lean visited him at his Mamaroneck office. That is bloody good, you know. It works. Lean had not seen Lawrence in 25 years, and was unaware, until that moment, just how extensively his film had been mutilated by studio indifference and time.

    But first it had to be restored to its length. As someone watching the project unfold during the past three years, I found myself having fewer problems with the immensity of the restoration — which took longer than it took Lean to make the film originally — than with understanding how Lawrence ever could have come to this sorry state. But the desecration did not occur after the first two years of release.

    It began well before the film opened, when Sam Spiegel, the producer, rushed it into release, forcing six or more months of postproduction to be crammed into four. In: Films in Review , 40,5, , pp. So they had one of their people throw a killer deal point in at the last minute — basically that we would share in revenues for an extraordinarily limited period of time, even though we were putting up half the money. Martin Scorsese and Steven Spielberg, both avid advocates of film preservation, were not thrilled that the project was heading towards litigation.

    David Puttnam, then president of Columbia, approached Lean at Cannes and asked him how he was, which was the wrong way to start a conversation at that time, since Lean was not happy at all. Scorsese later put in a call to Puttnam, who found out that some of the information that had gotten to him had been less than accurate. Harris speaks of it now without malice. All they had were several tons of materials: they would have had to go back to step one. My concern was that if we went through legal channels, it could be five years before anything happened, and then it would be a pyrrhic victory.

    The negative would be gone. Columbia knew how much we wanted to get it done, which was part of their power. But in the end Dawn was fair. There was no studio interference whatsoever until the day she saw the film at the screening with everyone else from Columbia. The running joke about her was that she had a lifetime contract with Sam Spiegel: every time something was done with Lawrence Of Arabia she was on call.

    If a local TV station wanted to make a cut, they had to bring her in. David and I discussed this often. We never even had the chance, in the editing, to see it through from beginning to end. How much of Yvonne Strahovski's work have you seen? Who are you? Nominated for 1 Golden Globe. Known For. Dexter Hannah McKay. Killer Elite Anne. Louie Blake. Jump to: Actress Miscellaneous Crew Self.

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